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density measurement methods

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Electronic structure methods based on the density functional theory (DFT) are used as a powerful tool for assessing the mechanical thermodynamic and defect properties of metal alloys. This article presents the origins of the electronic structure methods and their strengths and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... 12 and 13 illustrate the difference in probes used for the two methods. Fig. 11 AISCAN apparatus for hydrogen measurement. 1, probe and thermocouple immersed in melt; 2, hydrogen content measuring unit. Courtesy of ABB Group Fig. 12 Telegas probe. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 13...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... must be minimized or completely eliminated. There are two basic forms of powder forging: FERROUS PARTS of near and full theoretical density can be produced by a variety of thermomechanical methods. These methods involve various amounts of heat and mechanical work to aid densification of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... numbers of grid points are 6 and 300, respectively. If the structure is heterogeneous, measurement accuracy is improved by using a low-point-density grid and increasing the number of fields measured. Figure 1 demonstrates the point counting procedure and shows a synthetic microstructure consisting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in materials can be nondestructively measured by a variety of methods, including x-ray diffraction ( Ref 9 ), ultrasonics ( Ref 10 ), and electromagnetics ( Ref 11 , 12 ). With the x-ray diffraction technique, the interatomic planar distance is measured, and the corresponding stress is calculated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electrochemical reactivity of the electrolyte affect the metal removal rate. The most accurate method of determining removal rates is by empirical testing. The electrical current in a particular application is determined by the current density and the area of the gap between the anode (wheel) and the cathode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... analysis. The oldest method is electrogravimetry or electrodeposition ( Ref 11 ). Various electrochemical methods of chemical analysis also have been developed based on the measurement of an electrical signal generated by the process of electrolysis in an electrochemical cell. Electrochemical techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... designed to measure any or all of these features. Revised from D.K. Smith, Introduction to Diffraction Methods, Materials Characterization , Vol 10, ASM Handbook , ASM International, 1986, p 325–332 X-rays are a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum having...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... conditions that prevent the generation of cracks rather than minimizing or controlling crack propagation. Stiffness is the resistance to deformation. It is often measured as the elastic modulus, or the slope of the stress-strain curve. Because most finishing methods require application of force for surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Abrasive finishing is a method where a large number of multipoint or random cutting edges are coupled with abrasive grains as a bond or matrix material for effective removal of material at smaller chip sizes. This article provides a broad overview of the various categories of abrasive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... lost foam casting metallic molds no-bake process permanent mold casting plaster casting sand molds semisolid casting vacuum molding MOLDING METHODS and materials encompass a wide range of options. Some molding (casting) processes are centuries old, while others did not exist two...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... glass and measurement of these properties as a function of temperature. ceramics chemical analysis density measurement microstructural analysis nondestructive evaluation phase analysis proof testing strength testing methods surface area measurement thermophysical property testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and sintered PM parts: density variations, compaction and ejection cracks, microlaminations, poor degree of sintering, and voids from prior lubricant agglomerates. It describes the various methods applicable to green compacts: direct-current resistivity testing, radiographic techniques, computed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... current density determination by Tafel extrapolation, potentiodynamic measurement of the polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance measurement, and potentiostatic deaeration. Tests combining corrosion and mechanical forces, such as fretting corrosion tests, environment-assisted cracking tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of x-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress techniques. It begins by describing the principles of XRD stress measurement, followed by a discussion on the most common methods of XRD residual-stress measurement. Some of the procedures required for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Measuring the thickness of thin films can be accomplished in many ways. This article focuses on the optical method of single-wavelength ellipsometry, two multiple-wavelength methods of reflectometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry for measuring the thickness of thin films. The general...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Iron powders are the most widely used powder metallurgy (P/M) material for structural parts. This article reviews low to medium density iron and low-alloy steel parts produced by the pressing and sintering technology. It explains different powder production methods, including Hoeganaes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., carbon and hardness gradients, and process procedures of different types of case hardening methods: carburizing (gas, pack, liquid, vacuum, and plasma), nitriding (gas, liquid, plasma), carbonitriding, cyaniding and ferritic nitrocarburizing. An accurate and repeatable method of measuring case depth is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... measurement techniques. (a) Bending of cantilever beam. (b) Disk deflection. Source: Ref 7 Abstract This article provides a useful guide for measuring residual macrostress on coatings. The most commonly used measurement methods are mechanical deflection, X-ray diffraction, and hole-drilling strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Heat treatment of aluminum alloys is assessed by various quality-assurance methods that include metallographic examination, hardness measurements, mechanical property tests, corrosion-resistance tests, and electrical conductivity testing. The use of hardness measurements in the quality...