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densification

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reaction sintering and self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis. It also describes several pressure densification methods, including hot isostatic pressing, gas pressure sintering, molten particle deposition, and sol-gel processing. The article concludes with a section on grain growth that discusses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... techniques available for processing CCCs for specific applications, including preform fabrication (fiber weaving), densification, application of protective coatings, and joining. The article closes with a description of the mechanical and physical properties and applications of CCCs. The main applications of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... components, orthopedic implants, structural castings, and aerospace components. The densification of castings quickly grew to become the largest segment of the commercial HIP industry, accounting for approximately 60% of sales in the United States ( Ref 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). Even very small amounts of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... 2 represents the process of film densification. As the ion enters the lattice, it slows down upon inelastic collisions with other atoms in the lattice. The dashed line enclosing atoms A′ and 2′ indicates a void, identical to the one shown on the right, which was present prior to the arrival of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... between vertical and horizontal stresses, which results in very little material movement in the horizontal direction and thus limited lateral flow. As densification proceeds, the stress state approaches a pure hydrostatic condition. A typical pore simply flattens, and the opposite sides of the pore are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... strain rate, extensive particle cracking at elevated temperatures and strain rates, and densification in the case of powder forging of composites containing different levels of starting porosity. Another study revealed that a fully dense P/M 2080 reinforced with 15% SiC (15 μm, or 0.6 mil) exhibited no...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... multidimensional preforms created by textile processing of multifilament tows ( Ref 1 , 2 ). Composite densification is typically accomplished using phenolic resins in a preforming process, followed by liquid impregnation, vapor phase carbon infiltration, or combinations of the two to achieve pore filling ( Ref 3...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... substance to the powder apparent density The weight of a unit volume of powder. It is related to particle shape; the more irregular the shape of a powder particle, the lower the apparent density. cold isostatic pressing The densification of a material under isostatic pressure conditions at room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.../min is suitable to measure the CTE for most metals, and 1 to 5 K/min for most ceramics and plastics. Sintering studies are especially slow, 0.5 to 2 K/min, to minimize fractures caused by nonuniform binder burnout and densification. The load or stress on the specimen is highly dependent on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... porous preform is densified by forging in a single blow. Heat facilitates the densification and deformation aspects of the process in producing a net or near-net shape. Typically, forging is performed in heated, totally enclosed dies, and virtually no flash is generated. This contrasts with forging of...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the property changes measured after deposition. The amount of bombardment is often quoted as the amount of resputtering or the amount of energy per deposited atom that is added by the bombardment. Typically, for the maximum densification about 20 eV (3 aJ) per deposited atom must be added by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of the densification and fabrication methods used for monolithic advanced ceramics can be adapted for CMCs. These include cold pressing and sintering, hot pressing, reaction bonding, and hot isostatic pressing. In addition, some of the conventional methods used in polymer-matrix composites can be...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... removed during densification (sintering) and thus reduces the total shrinkage of the part during densification. Close packing also enhances the kinetics of sintering. Homogeneous powder packing decreases the likelihood of distortion or microstructural inhomogeneity during sintering...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... larger furnaces. Dried silicate, combined with small oxide additions, appears to be very suitable for crucible lining because of its thermal characteristics. Because of an irreversible thermal expansion of 8% above 1000 °C (1830 °F), a high densification of the lining takes place during sintering. For...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., both of which impart ductility and impact strength to the part. Low carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen contents also raise ductility. High residual carbon increases strength and hardness. Sintering in lower dew point hydrogen increases densification and ductility. If vacuum sintering is done with optimized...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Each product requires a “system” of additives, the selection and function of which are dependent on the means by which the ceramic product will be formulated from its raw materials, shaped before densification, incorporated with other production processes, and densified. A ceramic body comprises a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... hydrostatic pressure includes the densification of porous powder metallurgy products where both cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) are utilized. In addition, many superplastic-forming operations conducted at intermediate to high homologous temperatures utilize a backpressure of the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ( Fig. 1 ). The flask is vibrated to allow the loose sand to flow and compact in and around all areas of the pattern. A pouring basin or sprue cup is usually positioned around the exposed foam downsprue. When compaction (sand densification) is complete, the flask is moved into the pouring area, and...