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degrees of freedom

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... products from the market. The most important factors in the selection of steel for porcelain enameling are enamelability, freedom from surface defects, formability, sag characteristics, strength, and weldability. The relative importance of each depends on the requirements of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of metal Condition of metal (product form or heat treatment) Allowable metal loss Surface finish tolerances Shape and size of workpieces Production requirements Available equipment Cost Freedom from hydrogen embrittlement Combinations of two or more of the available...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forging hammers, operate with relative freedom from shock and vibration, they can more economically be equipped with knockout pins and other devices for ejecting the workpiece from the die cavities. These devices will eject forgings with low draft that otherwise might be difficult to withdraw from the die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... degree of solid solubility. Fig. 1 Atomic diameters of the elements and regions of relative size matching for substitutional alloying When temperature is increased, the energetic vibrations of atoms become more pronounced, which increases the likelihood that atoms may jump to another lattice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...), which are combinations of working (deformation) and heat (thermal) treatment ( Ref 19 ), offer an additional degree of freedom to tailor the α + β microstructure for broader applications. Fig. 3 Crystal structures for different phases in titanium alloys. (a) Body-centered cubic β phase. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... accomplished, the degree of criticality in making this assessment can quickly make the resources required available. However, there are certain scenarios where a sufficient number of real samples simply are not available, in which case the transfer function approach can be used. In addition, if resources to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... be immersed in the water bath. Most two- or three-axis mechanical scanning systems allow only planar scanning motions of flat or cylindrical shapes. Multiaxis systems with 5 to 11 degrees of freedom have been developed to handle geometrically complex structures. Robotic manipulators also have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... degrees of freedom of roll movement in comparison with prior roll forming schemes ( Ref 1 ). The workpiece of the starting material is rotated about its axis of symmetry by the main shaft of the roll forming mill. There are small rollers that can move in the radial direction and the axial direction with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... reacting species plus eventually a third body, as further explained later. Depending on the degrees of freedom ating in the reaction and on the internal rearrangement in the reacting molecule, different types of unimolecular reactions are found, which also involve a third-body molecule. Dissociation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... three phases (liquid and gaseous forms of water, and polymer) and thus has but one degree of freedom by Gibb's phase rule, namely temperature, because this is necessarily the independent variable in a measurement of T g . Results of using this method are given in Table 4 , where they are contrasted...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... optimized strength efficiency in addition to auxiliary properties such as weldability and predictable fracture toughness at cryogenic to moderately elevated temperatures. To provide this combination of properties, stringent user specifications require controlled microstructures and freedom from melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ). Selection of cleaning processes is influenced mainly by the type of contaminant to be removed, the required degree of cleanliness, and cost. Dirt deposits on stainless steel, which include accumulated dust and dirt, finger marks, and identification markings, are easily removed ( Ref 4 ). Frequently, warm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article describes the results obtained by Volmer, Weber, Farkas, Becker, and Doring, which constitute the classical nucleation theory. These results are the predictions of the precipitate size distribution, steady-state nucleation rate, and incubation time. The article reviews a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... fraction of the other solid phase(s) is zero, that is, the limit where the solvent phase is saturated with the solute constituents, and higher concentrations result in the precipitation of other solid phases. The degrees of freedom, F , of a phase region are governed by the Gibbs phase rule: (Eq 14...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... permeability, freedom from hydrogen embrittlement, or low outgassing tendency. Oxygen-free and deoxidized coppers can be welded without danger of embrittlement. Included in this group are the alloys that are deoxidized with small addition of various elements such as phosphorus (C12200, Cu-0.03P) and the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, particularly those for foundry production of castings, contain amounts of silicon far in excess of the amount that is soluble or needed for strengthening alone. The function here is chiefly to improve casting soundness and freedom from cracking, but the excess silicon also serves to increase wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... were filed, particularly in recent years, significant impediments remain to broader application that can use the design freedom it offers and enable use in critical and high-load parts. The economics of AM is application specific and still being studied, but AM can have significant impact on costs...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... building construction, are supported every day. The reason steel castings are attractive is their freedom of design. Any shape that can be imagined can be cast. Frequently, a casting cannot be made effectively, not because the design was too aggressive but because it was too timid. Often, a fabrication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... are the uses of silver in manufacturing and processing equipment within the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Silver has been used for decades within the food industry to maintain purity and freedom from metallic taste. Silver is resistant to many organic acids, salts, compounds, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... latter alloys, generally referred to as “non-heat-treatable” alloys, depend primarily on cold work to increase strength. Heating to decrease strength and increase ductility (annealing) is used with alloys of both types; metallurgical reactions may vary with type of alloy and with degree of softening...