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degree of ionization

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article endeavors to familiarize the reader with a selection of different ionization designs and instrument components to provide knowledge for sorting the various analytical strategies in the field of solid analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It begins with a description...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of the ionization energy in a plasma is not considered. Furthermore, it is a tailored equation for numbers only, lacking units for several of the physical quantities. However, it is generally accepted as a good description of the degree of ionization in emission sources for OES. This function reaches large values...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Field ion microscopy (FIM) can be used to study the three-dimensional structure of materials, such as metals and semiconductors, because successive atom layers can be ionized and removed from the surface by field evaporation. The ions removed from the surface by field evaporation can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., the free electron concentration of “unsalted” flames is low. This lack of electron buffering capacity may cause readily ionized analyte atoms to be thermally ionized to an appreciable degree. This depletes the ground-state atomic population and reduces the response. To correct for this, it is common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to electrical current. After the sputtering process, neutrals from the sample diffuse into the negative glow region of the GD, where they undergo various excitation/ionization collisions. Here, it should be highlighted that the temporal and spatial separation of the sputtering and ionization/excitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., the surface to be modified is exposed to a point discharge across a pair of electrodes. The discharge acts to ionize the gas present in the gap, which subsequently introduces changes in the chemistry of the surface. Flame and corona, although useful in oxidizing the surfaces of plastics, have limited utility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... Further characteristics of a glow discharge are a typical degree of ionization of 10 −4 and a current density of approximately 1 up>. Thus, plasma provides a ready and prolific source of chemically active atoms, and, in plasma (ion) carburizing, this is its principal function. A glow-discharge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...., alkalis and acids), ionizing radiation, and biological degradation, along with the combined effects of mechanical stress, temperature, and moisture (including environmental stress corrosion). The article also includes information on the use of accelerated testing for predicting material property...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for assembly design for manufacturing and assembly diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A digital image correlation dynamic key curve dynamic mechanical analysis degree of freedom dioctyl phthalate differential scanning calorimetry differential thermal analysis de ection temperature under load drop weight index poly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... that depends on the rotational degrees of freedom in the liquid and the vapor, p * is the vapor pressure of the material at temperature T , p is the hydrostatic pressure of the vapor above the surface, k is Boltzmann's constant, T is the absolute temperature, and m is the mass of the vaporized...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...); in most cases, the gas is argon. Argon has higher mass than other noble gases, such as neon or helium, and is easier to ionize. Higher mass gives a higher sputtering yield, especially if the mass of the bombarding particle is the same order of magnitude or greater than the mass of the target atom. Other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Ion implantation involves the bombardment of a solid material with medium-to-high-energy ionized atoms and offers the ability to alloy virtually any elemental species into the near-surface region of any substrate. This article describes the fundamentals of the ion implantation process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of the workpiece. High-voltage electrical energy is used to form a low-pressure ionized gas (or plasma) containing nitrogen ions that are accelerated to impinge on the workpiece. This ion bombardment heats the workpiece, cleans the surface, and supplies atomic nitrogen to the surface. As a variant of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... discusses the basic principles of spark source technique; SSMS instrumentation such as ion source, electric sector, and magnetic sector; sample preparation; and test procedures of SSMS. Some of the related techniques to SSMS are laser ionization mass spectrometry and laser-induced resonance ionization mass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... The steps for measuring the effectiveness of the cleaning system in a heat treating process are shown in a flow chart in Fig. 3 . Pre- and postcleaning are used based on the cleanliness requirements for the subsequent process and the end product. The cleanliness degree can be measured by using various...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., and the sample experiences a cooler central channel, with temperatures of 5000 to 8000 K. During a transit time of 2 to 3 ms in this central channel, the sample aerosol is desolvated, volatilized, dissociated, atomized, and, to varying degrees, ionized; the free atoms and ions are electronically excited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... are of different degrees of hardness, the particles will tend to embed themselves in the softer surface, causing wear of the harder surface. Wear called low-stress abrasion sometimes is defined as occurring when the abrasive does not break down (fracture) and usually occurs when an abrasive material slides...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... in arc-deposited films Ease of forming multicomponent films Uniformity of film thickness over large areas High degree of film adhesion Environmentally friendly processing Sputter deposition processes have several limitations as well: Target (source) materials must ordinarily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...; electrical current; bias current IBAD ion-beam-assisted deposition IC integrated circuit ICB ionized cluster beam (deposition) ID inside diameter in. inch IP conventional ion plating IR infrared ISCC intergranular stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... benefit from detailed data obtained at various stages of the test. One example of this type of use is the evaluation of rocket motor nozzles before and after firing tests ( Ref 31 ). In this case, the degree and depth of charring were evaluated and compared with theoretical models. Computed tomography has...