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degenerate problem tests

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... during software implementation planning to identify suitable programs, software components, and programming languages. It describes the validity tests used in model validation, including boundary-value tests, degenerate problem tests, sensitivity tests, and benchmarking. The article also presents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of the structural integrity program were to control structural failure of operational aircraft, to determine methods of accurately predicting aircraft service life, and to provide a design and test approach that would avoid structural fatigue problems in future weapon systems. The original ASIP used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... wetness. (b) 2 year on-vehicle exposure A special manifestation of the problem described previously is often encountered in standard scribe tests for evaluation of adhesion/corrosion properties of paint systems applied on a steel base ( Fig. 4 ). Already a moderately aggressive combination of salt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract This article discusses the production process, testing methods, quality control, and common defects found in heavy-section ductile iron (DI) castings, along with analyses of industrial examples. The common defects include shrinkage defects, graphite-particle-related defects, and chunk...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... stage, and proper metal handling procedures will go a long way to the prevention of defects. Further, a routine for logging and recording of defect occurrences will reveal which are the major problem areas, allowing for a systematic elimination of the defects. The examples discussed here have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... on the mathematical principles of solving differential equations. It also reviews linear structural problems to illustrate the concept of the FEMs. partial differential equation meshed-solution method finite-element method finite-difference method boundary-element method ENGINEERING MODELS are often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... additions of cerium and other RE elements. However, excessive additions of neutralizing elements can in themselves degrade nodularity. Trace Element Testing and Control Cast iron producers use a combination of tools to control the effects of minor elements on the structure and properties of cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... For economic reasons, or to avoid metallurgical problems, combinations of alloys are often used to achieve the desired hardenability in austempered ductile iron. The article provides information on the alloy combinations for austempered ductile iron. The mechanical properties, fracture toughness, fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... curves measured in the 0, 45, and 90° directions at RT for a 5019A-O sheet sample. Because this phenomenon is due to inhomogeneous plastic deformation, the plastic strains measured with extensometers are not reliable and can lead to erroneous r -values. In order to overcome this problem, tension tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and visualization software. A general procedure for serial sectioning is shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 The serial-sectioning process flow chart Etching Some materials require etching to obtain sufficient contrast between phases subsequent to the removal of each layer. Potential problems include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... to the surgical treatment of degenerate joints aimed at the relief of pain and the restoration of movement. This has been achieved by excision, interposition, and replacement arthroplasty and by techniques that have developed over about 170 years. Early Excision Arthroplasty In excision arthroplasty, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... discusses specific problems associated with implant manufacturing processes and the consequent compromises in the properties of functionally graded implants. It describes the manufacturing of the functionally-graded hip implant by using the LENS process. The article reviews four different types of tissue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... materials should be used What specifications are called out What nondestructive testing techniques are applicable What level of metallurgical testing should be performed What quality-assurance documentation is needed A teamwork approach between the designer and foundry (and, when possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... engine technology. The initial cast superalloy developments in the United States centered on cobalt-base materials. Cast Vitallium (Co-27Cr-5.5Mo-2.5Ni-0.25C) turbosupercharger blades were produced by the Austenal Company in 1942 in response to an overloaded forging industry and forgeability problems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... be undetectable in atmosphere furnaces. This method has been used when a minimum number of people were in the immediate area of the furnace being tested. The area around the furnace to be checked must be well ventilated to ensure adequate smoke removal when the furnace is reopened following the test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...) and/or low magnesium residual produce relatively more graphite flakes in the surface layer. The presence of microporosity, degenerate graphite, dross stringers, and other imperfections on the surface reduces all properties, as observed on all tensile test bars exhibiting these defects. As reported by Fallon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... on a patient ( Ref 2 ). Broadly, biocompatibility has been described as “ the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application” ( Ref 1 ). Biocompatibility involves determination of the material properties and testing at the in vitro level, followed by in vivo...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., such as the Ames test, do not seem as responsive as for organic compounds ( Ref 15 ). Evidence of carcinogenicity for metals relates more precisely with specific compounds of metals than with the metal itself. That is, some forms of the metal seem to be carcinogenic; for example, nickel subsulfide (Ni 3 S 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... with that of scanning Auger microscopes, and lists the applications and limitations of SEM. Jominy testing optical microscopes scanning electron microscopes scanning electron microscopy X-ray spectrometers Overview Introduction The first commercial scanning electron microscope became available...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... may remain undetected and become a site for crack initiation or corrosion penetration in service. Use of a larger-radius fillet could eliminate this problem. Figure 3 illustrates shrinkage porosity at bolt-boss sites of an alloy ductile-iron cylinder head. This defect was detected by a leak test...