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degassing and consolidation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... of high-strength aluminum powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys, detailing the advantages, properties, and the various steps involved in P/M technology, including powder production, powder processing, and degassing and consolidation. Three areas of design efforts to push the inherent advantages of aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Melting Stirring Fluxing and Degassing Pouring Gating Systems Process Description DRA Materials Produced by PIC Future of Pressure Infiltration Cast DRA Foil-Fiber-Foil Process Green Tape Process Metal Wire Process Magnesium-Matrix Composites Copper-Matrix Composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and HIP consolidated powder. Beryllium billets are jacketed with low-carbon steel, and aluminum-beryllium billets with copper. They typically have a shaped nose plug. Degassing is not necessary because the powder was prepared to remove adsorbed water vapor before consolidation. Due to differences in flow...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... It describes the sources of atmospheric contamination in plasma melting furnaces and their control measures. The equipment used in plasma melting furnaces are also discussed. The article provides a detailed discussion on various plasma melting processes, such as plasma consolidation, plasma arc remelting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that stabilizes the fine-grained microstructure. Therefore, a portion or all of the strengthening may be obtained from the ultrafine grain size stabilized by the oxide and carbide dispersions. Degassing. Powder is encapsulated in a can and degassed to prevent hydrogen porosity Consolidation. Powder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006488
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... to roughly 60 to 80% density; degassing the preform (which has an open, interconnected pore structure) to remove volatile contaminants (lubricants and mixing and blending additives), water vapor, and gases; and consolidation by vacuum hot pressing or hot isostatic pressing. The hot pressed cylindrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the formation of surface oxides and thereby control consequent hydrate formation. Degassing of either the rapidly solidified particulates or the consolidated products is aimed at removing or reducing the residual hydrogen to an acceptable level, preferably below 1 mL/100 g of aluminum. The critical factors...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... alloys Low oxygen content, effective removal of oxides Vacuum tank degassing without additions of polluting gases or materials High-purity metals Oxygen-free copper (2 ppm O) Melting and pouring under steady, controlled atmosphere or vacuum; gas stirring; carbon as reducing agent “New” alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... into a shaped mild-steel can. The can is then degassed in a vacuum at about 600 to 700 °C (1100 to 1300 °F) in order to remove both air and the gasses that are adsorbed onto the powder surface. The can is then hermetically sealed and isostatically pressed. After HIP consolidation, the can is removed by either...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... furnace. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 7 Typical sinter-HIP cycle for consolidation of cemented carbide. Source: Ref 19 Fig. 8 Effect of different sintering process conditions on transverse rupture strength of carbides with different grain sizes. (a) Medium WC. (b) Fine WC Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Tool steel Technique Vacuum degassing Mixing of slurry Vacuum cast Hot isostatic pressing Spray forming Post processing Curing Sintering and infiltration Thermal curing Decanning Cooling to room temperature Tensile strength … 100 ksi >70 ksi … 239 ksi Operating temperature...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-SF 6 gas mixtures for fluxing and degassing is essential to avoid the entrapment of gases. Mixing can be affected ultrasonically or by reciprocating rods, centrifuging, or zero-gravity processing. Matrix alloys include aluminum-silicon compositions specially designed for MMC processing ( Table 2...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... processes. It also covers the consolidation of powders by pressing and sintering, as well as by high density methods. Further emphasis is provided on the distinguishing features of powders, their manufacturing processes, compacting processes, and consolidated part properties. In addition, a glossary...
Book Chapter

By Justin Heimsch
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... flow-through degassing and filter boxes before entering the billet molds. Analyze product quality: material density and conductivity. Prepare for shipment. What should be apparent in the previous summary is that special attention is taken to maintain metal quality throughout the casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews various segments of the powder metallurgy (PM) process from powder production and powder processing through the characterization of the materials and their properties. It covers the processing methods for consolidating metal powders including options...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... curing. The entrapped air may be found in resin films or liquid resins, depending on the processing method. High-viscosity, controlled-flow resins and resins having high thixotropy can almost completely resist degassing. During the lay-up of a composite part using prepreg materials, air may be entrapped...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... fluxing, degassing, and molten-metal filtration. It focuses on various molten-metal handling systems for transporting, holding, or delivering molten metal to the mold/die system. These include launders, tundishes, holding furnaces or transport crucibles, molten-metal transfer pumps, teeming ladles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.9781627081610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...-molybdenum alloys. (b) Rhenium-tungsten alloys Fig. 4 Capacitance of sodium-reduced and electron beam melted, degassed-hydride tantalum powder. Thirty min anode sintering temperature at anode green densities commonly used for each powder Fig. 5 Electrical resistivity vs. temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... degassing, usually in combination with electric arc melting. In PM, based on the use of induction furnaces, low levels of carbon and nitrogen are feasible by controlling the raw materials in the melt charge and by minimizing nitrogen pickup from the air during melting. Control of oxygen is more complex...