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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract The International Committee of Foundry Technical Associations has identified seven basic categories of casting defects: metallic projections, cavities, discontinuities, defective surfaces, incomplete casting, incorrect dimension, and inclusions or structural anomalies. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract Coatings, such as those applied to ships, must be resistant to abrasion, in the case of cargo hold coatings, and cyclic changes of chemicals and tank cleaning, in the case of tank linings. Failures and defects can manifest themselves at various times in the life of a coating. To...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the concepts involved in heat-transfer modeling, thermomechanical modeling, and microsegregation modeling of hot tearing. It discusses the modeling of solidification defects, namely, inclusion entrapment, segregation, shrinkage cavities, gas porosity, mold-wall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... variations obtained in production runs of specific cold-headed products. It concludes with a discussion on the applications of warm heading. bolt makers cold heading cold heading machine cutting to length defects descaling dies dimensional accuracy headers heat treating lubricating machining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... provides information on the dimension-measurement applications of ultrasonic inspection methods. ultrasonic imaging inspection area-amplitude blocks distance-amplitude blocks calibration defects WHEN ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) was first applied, it was a workmanship standard and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the structural test applications of acoustic emission inspection to find defects and to assess or ensure structural integrity. acoustic emission inspection nondestructive testing metal-matrix composites quality control defects structural integrity ACOUSTIC EMISSION (AE) is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... contexts in which its use is growing in other evolving applications. It discusses the various guided wave modes and their selection criteria. The article provides information on considerations for mode control and the sensitivity of the GWT to the defect. It also shows some examples of advanced GWT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract The potential for introducing defects during processing becomes greater as the relative density of pressed and sintered powder metallurgy (PM) parts increases and more multilevel parts with complex geometric shapes are produced. This article discusses the potential defects in pressed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... presents drawbacks and limitations of these techniques. Generic flaw types and flaw-producing mechanisms are listed in a table. The article discusses metal-to-metal defects, adherend defects, honeycomb sandwich defects, repair defects, and in-service defects. It reviews the methods applicable to the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Crystal structure is the arrangement of atoms or molecules in the solid state that involves consideration of defects, or abnormalities, in idealized atomic/molecular arrangements. The three-dimensional aggregation of unit cells in the crystal forms a space lattice or Bravais lattice...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... tabulates the assorted structure types of metallurgical interest arranged according to Pearson symbol. It also provides information on crystal defects in all real crystals, explaining some significant ones, such as point defects, line defects, stacking faults, and twins. atom position crystal defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Electronic structure methods based on the density functional theory (DFT) are used as a powerful tool for assessing the mechanical thermodynamic and defect properties of metal alloys. This article presents the origins of the electronic structure methods and their strengths and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Fig. 1 Origin of defect leakage fields. (a) Magnetic flux lines of a magnet without a defect. (b) Magnetic flux lines of a magnet with a surface defect Fig. 3 Flux leakage measurement using a search coil Fig. 4 Leakage flux and search coil signal as a function of position...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Probability of detection (POD) assesses the performance of a non-destructive evaluation (NDE)-based inspection, which is a method used to determine the capability of an inspection as a function of defect type and defect size. This article provides an overview of the concept of POD, why...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of joining materials to make parts from three-dimensional (3D) model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing and formative manufacturing methodologies. This article discusses various defects in AM components...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... article also describes the role of bifilm defects in fracture. castings nucleation bifilms metallurgy solidified cast metal intermetallics MOST METALS start their lives in the liquid state. Once melted, they are usually subjected to various transfers between furnaces or ladles, involving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the methods for using Rayleigh waves for defect detection and materials characterization, alongside nonlinear ultrasonic inspection and surface acoustic wave (SAW) microscopy. The article concludes with information on the standards that use Rayleigh waves for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... possible to their final shape. The article also provides useful information on drying methods, shrinkage, and defects as well as the removal of organic processing aids such as dispersants, binders, plasticizers, and lubricants. ceramic forming process drying green machining organics removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workability tests and illustrates their application in practical forging situations. Workability tests for open-die forging of cast structures, hot and cold open-die forging of recrystallized structures, fracture-controlled defect formation, establishing effects of process variables and secondary tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Workability is the ability of the workpiece metal to undergo extrusion or drawing without fracture or defect development. This article describes the limits of workability in extrusion and drawing in terms of fracture and flaw development and presents some comments on fracture...