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defect detection

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the methods for using Rayleigh waves for defect detection and materials characterization, alongside nonlinear ultrasonic inspection and surface acoustic wave (SAW) microscopy. The article concludes with information on the standards that use Rayleigh waves for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Probability of detection (POD) assesses the performance of a non-destructive evaluation (NDE)-based inspection, which is a method used to determine the capability of an inspection as a function of defect type and defect size. This article provides an overview of the concept of POD, why...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... criteria. Historically, reference standards for NDE methods of defect detection have been used to ensure the reproducibility of the application of the method(s) and to establish an acceptable quality of the process rather than to establish the dimensions or other applicable parameter of the defect or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inspect magnetic materials for defects such as cracks, voids, and inclusions and to assess other material properties, such as grain size, texture, and hardness. This article discusses the principles of such defect detection, providing details on the origin, generation, and assessment of leakage field data...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... presence has been unsuspected because, even though they can have a large area, they often are only nanometers thick and not easily detected by conventional nondestructive techniques. They can be serious defects because they act as cracks in the liquid, and the cracks become frozen into the casting. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques are based on nonlinear interaction of ultrasonic waves with the material to be characterized and defects to be detected. This article introduces the basic principles of nonlinear material-wave interaction, the origin of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... 1 ), or penetrant testing. These technologies are well established across industries and geometries for the purposes of physical flaw detection and thus have a myriad of supporting documentation and testing standards ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). Metallurgical or stress defects, such as grinding retemper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... various electromagnetic and eddy current techniques that can be used to detect changes to nearsurface geometric anomalies or other defects are also discussed. These include ultrasonic techniques, radiographic techniques, and neutron imaging. additive manufacturing cracking eddy current technique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... various methods of surface or internal inspection to identify discontinuities such as cracks, pits, phase or constituent segregation, voids, porosity, or wear. Throughout this article, the word discontinuity is generally used to indicate a material imperfection. The word defect is often used but is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Laser-ultrasonics is a particular implementation of ultrasonic nondestructive inspection in which ultrasound is generated and detected by lasers. This article discusses the various mechanisms that ensure ultrasound generation and explains the possibility to get the equivalent of phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... installation of the protective coating/lining system. Prior to beginning surface-preparation operations, many specifications will require a presurface-preparation inspection to verify the correction of fabrication defects and removal of surface contamination such as grease, oil, cutting compounds, lubricants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... within a component or assembly but that are not detectable by electrical testing. The defects may grow with time or with thermal cycling, and when they reach a critical size, electrical performance may be affected; that is, a connection may break, or an electrical characteristic may change. Integrated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... waterbreak test and measurement of the anodic layer and primer thickness. Interface defects can be caused by improper or inadequate degreasing, deoxidizing, anodizing, drying, damage to the anodizing layer, or excessive primer thickness. Interface defects are generally not detectable by state-of-the-art...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... testing Thickness gaging Thickness gaging; grade sorting Defects only Defects only Source: Ref 1 Table 2 Comparison of some nondestructive testing methods Method Characteristics detected Advantages Limitations Example of use Ultrasonics Changes in acoustic impedance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... The primary guiding principle of any inspection whether it is well addressed by industry codes and standards or a completely new method is that the NDE-specific procedure must be demonstrated to be able to detect and, if required, size any defects of interest. Demonstration of the efficacy of any NDE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ultrasonic systems are extensively used in production for defects in steel bars. Figure 9 shows such a system from GE Inspection Technologies. The ultrasonic phased array test system is used for on-line detection of core and longitudinal surface/subsurface flaws in round bars. The ultrasonic coupling is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the detection of subsurface flaws as the thickness of an object increases because the possible depth of the defects increases. Thermal inspection is applicable to complex shapes or assemblies of similar or dissimilar materials and can be used in the one-sided inspection of objects. Moreover...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... more multilevel parts with complex geometric shapes are produced. Detecting defects as early as possible during the production sequence can have a significant economic impact. For pressed and sintered parts, this means detection of defects in the as-compacted or “green” state. While the PM industry has...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Table 1 summarizes the consequences of these fundamental differences. Table 1 Characteristics of acoustic emission inspection compared with other inspection methods Acoustic emission Other methods Detects movement of defects Detect geometric form of defects Requires stress Do not...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... driving mechanism behind vibrothermography. The required vibration amplitude is a function of defect and part properties and must be experimentally determined to ensure consistent defect detection while protecting the part from unnecessary stress. High vibrational stress amplitudes on the order of 50 MPa...