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deep-penetration-mode welding

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are its low cost and deep weld penetration. The gas mixture most commonly employed is 75% CO 2 and 25% Ar. Weld metal deposited with this mixture generally has higher tensile and yield strengths than weld metal deposited with 100% CO 2 shielding. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW) is an arc welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... dependent on welding mode (conduction or keyhole), geometry, and use of filler metal ( Ref 10 ). The general rule is to focus at a distance, where maximum penetration depth is attained through experimental verification. Different energy densities can be achieved by the manipulation of lasing hardware...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... ms, pulse 1 = pulse 2 = 120 ms, and pulse 1 = pulse 2 = 140 ms. The weld lobe for 1.6 mm (0.06 in.) Q&P 980 is shown in Fig. 17 . In this weld lobe, the minimum weld current is defined as the welding current needed to obtain a full button fracture mode when peel tested, and the maximum weld...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... system is its ability to determine accurately the position and dimensions of flaws lying deep in opaque test objects, especially when only one side of the object is accessible. (In contrast to the scanning system, the liquid-surface system is usually operated in the transmission mode, which requires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to 20 mm ( 3 4 in.) deep, 3 mm ( 1 8 in.) diameter, flat-bottomed holes. In the inspection of aluminum, a single set of reference blocks can be used for most parts regardless of alloy or wrought mill product. This is considered acceptable practice because ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... environmental cracking resistance of the cobalt alloys. Three welding processes that are used for hardfacing with the high-carbon Co-Cr-W alloys, namely, oxyacetylene, gas tungsten arc, and plasma-transferred arc are also discussed. The article examines the effects of various modes of high-temperature corrosion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... feature should be manufactured. This allows casting processes to be applied more creatively, often reducing costs compared to other modes of manufacture, as well as finish machining costs. GD&T encourages the manufacturer to be creative in complying with the dimensional specifications of the drawing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Shallow cracks (1.3 mm, or 0.05 in., deep) running perpendicular to the weld were found in the weld and HAZ during metallurgical analysis. Elemental analysis indicated that copper was found in the cracks. The investigation concluded that superficial melting of the copper fixture resulted in transfer of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... element in the search unit. The beam pattern from the search unit is determined by the operating frequency and size of the transducer element. Ultrasonic energy travels through the material at a specific velocity that is dependent on the physical properties of the material and on the mode of propagation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...×) in this same area shows the multiple pits and associated corrosion products at the failure origin. The beach marks are seen emanating from the pits, typical of fatigue failure mode. Source: Ref 6 The seal had failed, allowing moisture into the cavity. This served as an electrolyte for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... relatively easily combined with vision systems, because both technologies are based on optics, and could result in a sensing system that provides complete information on a manufactured object from its surface to deep inside. Laser-ultrasonics also is unique in that it provides, without contact, and even...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosive media include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, organic acids, salts, seawater, and alkalis. The modes of high-temperature corrosion include oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, sulfidation, nitridation, corrosion by halogens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... absorption coefficient for the sample material and radiation used governs the depth of penetration, which can vary considerably. However, in iron-, nickel-, and aluminum-base alloys, 50% of the radiation is diffracted from a layer approximately 0.005 mm (0.0002 in.) deep for the radiations generally used for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-documented work that also serves as an introduction to several facets of the eddy-current inspection method is that of Farrow, who pioneered in the development of eddy-current systems for the inspection of welded steel tubing. He began his work in 1930 and by 1935 had progressed to an inspection system that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Structures exposed to the elements are often coated with zinc or painted, whereas mechanical components used in a dynamic mode are often lubricated. Protective coatings can partially or completely attenuate the incident x-ray beam and must be removed prior to residual-stress measurement. Removal of coatings...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Hardening response Amount of distortion (a) Resistance to cracking Approximate hardness (b) , HRC Machinability Toughness Resistance to softening Resistance to wear Molybdenum high-speed steels M1 Low Deep A or S, low; O, medium Medium 60–65 Medium Low Very high Very high M2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... than surrounding regions. Detection of surface-breaking cracks Acoustic energy is mode- and shape-sensitive so is nonuniform in heating effect. Also no crack depth information Same as thermal/IR above Mostly metals and composites Liquid penetrant Liquid penetrant fluid preferentially collects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the transition between the base metal and weld metal is shown in Fig. 6(d) . The continuous grain-boundary phase in the weld metal responsible for the decohesive rupture features is evident. It was concluded from the investigation that the bronze gear cracked via mixed-mode overload, rather...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Thermal stresses accompanying welding initiated brittle cracks in this region, which then propagated to the surface. Fig. 320 : Transverse section of field failure. Fig. 321 : Fracture surface near center of shaft. Failure mode is brittle fracture. Note river patterns. SEM, 100×. Fig. 322 : Fractograph...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of 0.1 μm/cycle, the amount of faceting decreased, being replaced by more ductile modes of fracture. SEM, 12×. Fig. 1107 and 1108 : At high Δ K (>38 MPa m , or 35 ksi in. ) and da / dN of 0.5 μm/cycle, the fracture surface was characterized by striations, microvoids, and...