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data-reduction techniques

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... thought of as an element of “failure analysis technique,” it is an essential step in the process. All of the subsequent test results are limited somewhat if the casting background information is not known. In many cases the available background information is limited, but the following data should be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... samples (Ref 3). The technique uses data from the entire Debye ring collected with a two-dimensional area detector positioned where the cone of diffraction intersects the plane of the two detectors shown in Fig. 4 . The peak positions at four quadrants of the Debye ring are measured, and the stress is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... strengthening grain size reduction atomistic modeling dislocations cast aluminum data-mining technique TENSILE PROPERTIES OF METALLIC MATERIALS are characterized by the elastic modulus (i.e., Young's modulus) exhibited by a material prior to the formation of a permanent set, the yield stress, ultimate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by a discussion on the use of synchrotron radiation as an X-ray source for EXAFS. Data-reduction procedures used to extract EXAFS signals are then described. The article also provides information on the analysis of x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrum and ends with a discussion on the unique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-coupled device, or CCD, camera) records the diffracted spot where each pixel of the camera records its own “local” rocking curve, so that several images (or maps) can be reconstructed by extracting data from these local rocking curves. In particular, maps of three parameters of interest for each rocking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... achieved with full-field techniques, such as optical or thermographic inspection in a layer-wise fashion that can be achieved with limited system integration. Research topics include quantifying thermal data and examination of volumetric techniques such as acoustic emissions for process monitoring and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... derived from the same data as Fig. 3 . The degree of development also affects graininess. For example, if development time is increased to produce higher film speed, the graininess is also increased. On the other hand, a developer or developing technique that gives an appreciable reduction in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Computed tomography (CT) includes highly sophisticated analysis of the detected radiation. A tomographic setup consists of a high-energy photon source, a rotation table for the part, a detector array, and the associated display and data analysis equipment, as shown in Fig. 14 ( Ref 14 ). The ability to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... disks or data bases. A typical card, for example, contains information on the structure of the material as well as the relative density data ( Fig. 6 ). Information is available for both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compounds. Fig. 6 Powder diffraction standard card for stoichiometric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the specific testing technique and how to use and properly interpret the data is paramount to understanding how the component(s) are actually responding to the applied loading conditions. Other mechanical tests are destructive in nature and require the fabrication of a test specimen, so the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... They should be stored in cool and well-ventilated rooms and used under well-ventilated hoods. The Material Safety Data Sheets provided by the manufacturer should be read carefully before using any plating products. As the gold concentration decreases, the rate of deposition also decreases. In order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in a dataset, d min , to represent data resolution. Data resolution depends on sample crystallinity as well as the instrument. A synchrotron diffraction beamline can provide data of much higher resolution than a laboratory diffractometer ( Fig. 1 ). X-ray diffraction is classified by technique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and free software exist for data reduction, conversion, and processing. A powder pattern from a single-phase material will have maxima at positions dictated by the size and shape of its unit cell and will increase in complexity as the symmetry of the material decreases. For example, many metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... various criteria to be considered for specimen preparation and calibration of TGAs. The use of thermogravimetric analysis data in the assessment of failure analysis of plastics and the combined usage of TGA with other techniques to understand the changes in the sample are also covered. The article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... to the diverse and specialized nature of applications for advanced ceramic materials, a multitude of specific tests have been developed by workers in the field. This fact makes it difficult to develop meaningful comparisons among laboratories and existing experimental data. The number of different...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... , 4 ) as well as provided benchmark data used for modeling ( Ref 5 , 6 ). Despite their impact, however, these model systems are far from complete as analogs to metals and alloys; several of their physical properties tend to differ distinctively from those of metals, for example, solute/solvent mass...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... it provides a digital electronic format that is amenable to computer-assisted data reduction and analysis. Threshold sensitivity: A phase or compound must typically represent 1 to 2% of the sample to be detected Precision of interplanar spacing and lattice parameter measurements: ∼0.3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... stress measurement is effective in the determination of the degree of stress reduction, very limited data are available. The residual-stress-versus-time curve shapes at each stress-relief temperature are likely to differ for every alloy and should be a function of prior processing. Besides x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis of these data that cracks of the same size were not detected equally. In addition to the variability in a repeated measurement on a single crack, there was significant variability in the response of different cracks of the same size. Based on their analysis of the “Have Cracks, Will Travel” data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... also includes data from Ref 75 obtained under similar test conditions. The corrosion rates, calculated from gravimetric measurements, were relatively large for the stainless steel because of pitting attack, but the rates for the metallic glasses were so low that they could not be detected even after...