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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract As a failure investigation progresses, the time arrives when the data and results of the various testing and analyses are compiled, compared, and interpreted. Data interpretation should be relatively straightforward for results that align well. However, interpretation can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Ni,W Δ Q W ′ = x Ni Q W Ni + x W Q W W + x Ni x W 0 A W Ni,W . Fig. 9 Comparison of calculated and measured tracer diffusivity data for (a) nickel and (b) tungsten in nickel-tungsten face-centered cubic (fcc) alloys as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of machining data, presented in tables, covering most of the commonly used machining operations including turning, face milling, end milling (peripheral), drilling, reaming, and tapping of several materials. It provides starting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article contains tables that present engineering data for the following metals and their alloys: aluminum, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, nickel, tin, titanium, zinc, precious metals, permanent magnet materials, pure metals, rare earth metals, and actinide metals. Data presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... synchrotron beamlines, one or more 0D detectors are moved around the specimen axis to collect the data. In the diffractometer method, the sample is flat while the source and 0D detector are put on two arms at the same distance from the specimen surface, centered on the rotation axis of the system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses various concepts of micro x-ray diffraction (XRD) used for the examination of materials in situ. The discussion covers the principles, equipment used, sample preparation procedure, considerations for calibrating a detector, steps for performing data analysis, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and free software exist for data reduction, conversion, and processing. A powder pattern from a single-phase material will have maxima at positions dictated by the size and shape of its unit cell and will increase in complexity as the symmetry of the material decreases. For example, many metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes the fundamental concepts of heat treatment simulation, including the physical events and their interactions, the heat treatment simulation software, and the commonly used simulation strategies. It summarizes material data needed for heat treatment simulations and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the basic principles of and chemical effects in Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), covering various factors affecting the quantitative analyses of AES. The discussion covers instrumentation and sophisticated electronics typically used in AES for data acquisition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... calibration of materials for accurate measurements using XPS are provided, along with some aspects of the accuracy in quantitative analysis by XPS. In addition, the article presents examples of how XPS data can be used to solve problems with surface interactions. chemical composition X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The goal of using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) in conjunction with failure analysis is to obtain the most comprehensive set of data in order to characterize the details of the damage and determine the factors that allowed the damage to occur. The NDE results can be used to determine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... transition to linear hardening may be effected in the context of the framework for work hardening given previously, with an eye toward practical analysis of data. After an abbreviated review, a framework is presented for the modeling of stage IV in the context of the standard model given previously. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... homogeneous effective medium (HEM). The article analyzes the anisotropy predictions of rolled face-centered-cubic and body centered-cubic sheets and presents simulations of the axial deformation of hexagonal-close-packed zirconium. The applications of polycrystal constitutive models to the simulation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... data ( Ref 29 , 81 , 82 ) can be used to estimate the vapor pressure of the primary volatile specie: (Eq 30a) SiO 2 ( s ) + 2 H 2 O ( g ) = Si ( OH ) 4 ( g ) Δ G = − R T ln K p = 56 , 700 + 66.2 T (Eq 30b) 0.5 Al 2 O 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of obtaining background data during the early phases of the investigation, it is critical to determine what materials were selected by the designers and obtain a copy of the material specifications and certifications. For example, some of the commonly used material specifications in the United States...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... acceptable. With the continuing development of biodegradable and bioabsorbable materials and with the increased sophistication of design and engineering software, the need for authoritative materials property and performance data, whether generated internally or compiled from reliable external references...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... carbides developed by these “carbide formers.” Such behavior is illustrated in the section Representative Decarburization Data below. For any given class of microstructure, the mechanical properties of steel are strongly dependent on carbon concentration, and Fig. 3 displays the effect of carbon...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... hardenability of the steel. Figure 2 also shows the cooling rate for the designated test positions. Details of the standard test method are contained in ASTM A 255 and SAE J406. Fig. 2 Method for presenting end-quench hardenabililty data The measured hardenability, curve shown in Fig. 2 for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reactions, filtration and washing, and powder recovery techniques. It concludes with a discussion on characterization, centering on size distribution analysis, specific surface area, density, porosity chemical composition, phase, and surface composition. ceramic powders ceramic processing additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., diffusionless (martensitic) phase transformation as occurs with face-centered cubic to hexagonal close-packed transformation in cobalt-chromium alloys, stacking faults and twins and their role in this transformation. It also includes strengthening mechanisms that are responsible for the mechanical properties of...