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cylindrical forgings

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Control of grain flow is one of the major advantages of shaping metal parts by rolling, forging, or extrusion. This article shows the effects of anisotropy on mechanical properties. Cylindrical forgings commonly have a straight parting line located in a diametral plane. The alternate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Forgings are classified in various ways, beginning with the general classifications open die and closed die. They are also classified according to how they are made; such as hammer upset forgings, ring-rolled forgings, and multiple-ram press forgings; and in terms of the close-to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for bars 2 and 3 because the section is square, which implies equal reduction in section in both transverse directions. Fig. 5 Anisotropy and mechanical properties in forgings. Schematic views of sections from (a) square rolled stock, (b) rectangular rolled stock, (c) a cylindrical extruded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... conventional alloys. To evaluate the ductility of the advanced alloys for forging applications, an upset compression test of cylindrical specimens can be used as a workability test ( Fig. 5 ). Compression of cylindrical specimens of the material generates circumferential tensile stresses and axial compressive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... et al. ( Ref 18 ), optimizing techniques were used to obtain HTCs on a cylindrical probe during polymer quenching. Temperature-dependent HTCs were obtained, although even for this relatively simple geometry, some of the reported cases required between 1000 and 2000 iterations to converge to a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Forging machines use a wide variety of hammers, presses, and dies to produce products with the desired shape, size, and geometry. This article discusses the major types of hammers (gravity-drop, power-drop, high speed, and open-die forging), and presses (mechanical, hydraulic, screw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article describes the use of compression tests, namely, cylindrical compression, ring compression, and plane-strain compression tests at elevated temperatures. It discusses the effects of the temperature, strain rate, and deformation heating on metals during the cylindrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Titanium alloys are forged into a variety of shapes and types of forgings, with a broad range of final part forging design criteria based on the intended end-product application. This article begins with a discussion on the classes of titanium alloys, their forgeability, and factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Cylindrical slugs are sometimes partially flattened before forging to promote better flow and consequently better filling of an impression. This can usually be done at room temperature between flat dies in a hammer or a press. A rectangular slug is occasionally obtained by extruding rectangular-section bar...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... expensive, and such forgings are produced only under unusual circumstances. Generally, most open-die forgings can be grouped into four categories: cylindrical (shaft-type forgings symmetrical about the longitudinal axis), upset or pancake forgings, hollow (including mandrel and shell-type forgings), and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Table 1 Recommended forging temperature ranges for aluminum alloys Aluminum alloy Forging temperature range °C °F 1100 315–370 600–700 2014 420–460 785–860 2025 420–450 785–840 2219 425–470 800–880 2618 410–455 770–850 3003 315–370 600–700 4032 415...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... unloading of the workpiece. Fig. 8 Forging of tubular parts over (a) a short mandrel and (b) a long mandrel Long tubes with cylindrical bores are forged over a short mandrel. The short mandrel, held with the mandrel rod, is positioned between the forging tools while the chuckhead moves the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ). Another location is a rib in which metal is made to flow nonuniformly ( Fig. 32 , 33 ). Most often, a lap at this location is a result of an excessively sharp fillet radius in the forging die. Several tests other than those employing simple upsetting of cylindrical specimens have been devised to obtain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the forging behavior and practices of carbon and alloy steels. It presents general guidelines for forging in terms of practices, steel selection, forgeability and mechanical properties, heat treatments of steel forgings, die design features, and machining. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... flat cylindrical head, upset forged at one end of a bar, is shown after finish forging, with flash attached, in Fig. 11(a) . Two alternate designs of flash are illustrated: the flash at the left of the forged head is a thin, flat fin and that at the right is designed with a slight, open relief angle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... was made by bolting the web of the housing to the turbine frame and inserting the ball-shape end of an airframe strut into the cylindrical cavity at the center of the housing. The weight of the engine and all of the dynamic loading encountered in service were transmitted through the webs of the forged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... multiple progressive impressions through which the workpiece is passed sequentially to forge the desired shape. The roll dies are of three types: flat back, semicylindrical, and fully cylindrical ( Fig. 6 ) and are selected according to the design and manufacturer of the machine. The machine illustrated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of metal is predominantly concentric, moving outward from the punch. Piercing to produce a cavity may be applied to webs, cylindrical billets, and pancake forgings. Extrusion is the conversion of a billet into lengths of uniform cross section by forcing the plastic metal through a die orifice of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... discusses the effects of impurities, hydrogen, and surface roughness on cracking. The article exemplifies simulation works applied to several successful cracking tests on cylindrical and complex-shaped steel parts. bearing steel chemical composition circumferential cracks cylindrical specimen heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension...