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cutting force

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on laboratory atomic force microscopes (AFMs) used in ambient air and liquid environments. It begins with a discussion on the origin of AFM and development trends occurring in AFM. This is followed by a section on the general principles of AFM and a comprehensive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... mechanical-to-thermal energy conversion. Maximizing the cutting component and minimizing tribological interactions are often associated with minimum use of forces or energy. Coolants dissipate the thermal energy to minimize the heat dissipation through the work material, if it affects the integrity of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... hard tooling is required to cut flat-sheet metal parts if a computer-controlled X - Y machine is used. Because very low forces are imposed on the workpiece, simple clamping (with weights) will often hold the workpiece in position. A low cutting temperature, with no noticeable heat-affected zone, is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and workpiece Production requirements influencing the speeds and feeds selected Operating conditions, such as cutting forces and temperatures Tool cost per part machined, including initial tool cost, grinding cost, tool life, frequency of regrinding or replacement, and labor cost. The most...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... performance. Air is the most common gaseous fluid. It is present under atmospheric pressure for dry operations and also present when fluids are used. Air is sometimes compressed to provide better cooling, with a stream directed at the cutting zone to remove heat by forced convection. This also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... edges ( Fig. 6a ). A sharp edge is desirable in a cutting tool because it leads to lower cutting forces, reduced tool-tip temperatures, and finer workpiece surface finishes. Fig. 6 Physical vapor deposition coatings on cemented carbide substrates. (a) TiN. (b) TiCN. (c) TiAlN In the last...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-cutting work is performed on generic or multipurpose material handling systems, as opposed to dedicated automation controlled systems. In straight-knife shearing, the work metal is placed between a stationary lower knife (or blade) and a movable upper knife. As the upper knife is forced down...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chip disposal. This can be achieved by providing nicks on the cutting edge of twist drills, as well as indexable drill inserts, to improve chip splitting and breaking (see Fig. 9 ). Fig. 8 Thrust force reduction achieved by eliminating the chisel edge by grinding grooves on either side. (a) Line...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... demonstrates how the service life of cutting tools is determined by a number of wear processes, including tool wear, machining parameters, and tool force and power requirements. It concludes by presenting a comprehensive collection of formulas for turning, milling, drilling, and broaching, and its average unit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... engine application. Each individual turbine disk is excised from this forging by electrical discharge machining or waterjet cutting. Courtesy of Ladish Co., Inc. Most nickel-base alloys and superalloys ( Table 1 ) are stronger and stiffer than steels. The exception is very-low-alloyed materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... for high-nitrogen stainless steel wedge-test specimens cut from cast ingot. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 5 Percentage of recrystallized structure in wedge-test specimens after various thermomechanical treatments performed on a high-nitrogen stainless steel. OQ, oil quench. Source: Ref 11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... The authors gratefully acknowledge the enthusiastic and longstanding support and encouragement of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Materials and Manufacturing Directorate and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research in the discovery and development of much of the current knowledge on structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in specimens of varying sizes, depending on whether they are cut from fine-grained wrought products or coarsegrained cast products. The presence of crystallographic texture must also be taken into consideration. In specimens taken from wrought bar stock, for example, wire textures (a specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... , Ref 53 , Ref 54 ). In hot forming applications, hard coatings are generally used. They are applied to the die surface by mechanical, thermal, or chemical means. A hard surface layer reduces the frictional force and the wear rate when sliding against a relatively soft workpiece material if the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article is an overview of the division Surface Analysis of this volume. The division covers various developed surface-analysis techniques, such as scanning probe and atomic force microscopy. The division focuses on the analysis of surface layers that are less than 100 nm. A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... devices. The methods include light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Hot extrusion is a process in which wrought parts are formed by forcing a heated billet through a shaped die opening. This article discusses nonlubricated and lubricated hot extrusion. The two nonlubricated hot extrusion methods are forward or direct extrusion and backward or indirect...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... discussed. The article concludes with information on the applications of centrifugal force in investment casting and combustion synthesis. casting defects casting equipment centrifugal casting coating cooling investment casting semicentrifugal casting centrifuge mold casting inoculation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... nanotechnology and the development of smart coatings have been dependent largely on the availability of analytical and imaging techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. ball milling chemical vapor...