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cupola melting

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., furnace types, charging practices of metal melting methods, namely induction melting, cupola melting, arc melting, crucible melting, reaction melting, and vacuum melting, and the refractories and charging practice of reverberatory furnaces. Molten metal treatment of steels and aluminum also is discussed...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... coke. Alternate layers of scrap metal and coke are charged into the top of the cupola. In its slow descent, the scrap metal is heated to the melting temperature by direct contact with the upward flow of the hot gases from the coke combustion. The molten-metal droplets collect in the inner portion of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...) Nontransferred arc plasma torch and (b) transferred arc plasma torch In a nontransferred plasma torch, the gas is the only resistive element that generates heat. Nontransferred arcs are desirable for hot gas contact in shaft heaters, melters (cupolas), and reactors such as blast furnaces. This mode is...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... arc melting of iron and EAF steelmaking. chemical analysis cupola furnaces deoxidation electric arc furnaces ferrous alloys oxidation steel furnace shell water-cooling system preheat and furnace scrap burners heat reduction THE MELTING OF STEEL is performed in both arc furnaces and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ferrite) or to a mixture of ferrite and pearlite. The essential purpose of melting is to produce molten iron of the desired composition and temperature. For gray iron, this can be accomplished with various types of melting equipment. Cupolas and induction furnaces tend to be the types most...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... furnaces have been used for cast iron melting ( Fig. 3 ). In terms of tonnage, however, cupola and induction furnace melting are the primary melting methods used by iron metalcasting facilities ( Fig. 4 ). Electric induction furnaces and some resistance heating are also used for holding furnaces between...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... practices apply. Cupola melting is acceptable, but these irons are commonly electric melted. Acid, neutral, or basic linings are used. Conventional ductile iron charge materials are also used; however, care should be taken to minimize chromium, manganese, and phosphorus. Manganese content should not...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... interspersed nodules of temper carbon. Cupola malleable iron is a blackheart malleable iron that is produced by cupola melting and is used for pipe fittings and similar thin- section castings. Because of its low strength and ductility, cupola malleable iron is usually not specified for structural applications...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... pearlite is retained even at elevated temperatures. Commercially pure tin is added to the cast iron in the form of shot, bars, or cast pieces; in cupola melting, the tin is commonly added to the ladle or to the cupola spout during tapping. Tin is also added to special mixing chambers along with suitable...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... dealing with these alloys. Ferrous alloys include both cast irons and steels. Cast irons generally refer to iron alloys containing 3 to 4% carbon, with silicon contents of 1.5 to 2.5%. Cast irons, which are melted in induction furnaces, cupolas, and electric arc furnaces, are generally poured...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Nickel Development Institute and Ralph Nelson of Thomas Foundries Inc. for helpful discussions. A principal advantage of the nickel-chromium irons is that they can be melted in a cupola; however, better control of composition and temperature are achieved with electric furnace melting. Consequently...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... produced by cupola melting and used for pipe fittings and similar thin-section castings. Because of its low strength and ductility, cupola malleable iron usually is not specified for structural applications. Pearlitic malleable iron is designed to have combined carbon in the matrix, resulting in higher...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and steel, target sulfur concentrations after desulfurization are in the range of 0.006 to 0.010% S. In electric-melted cast iron and steel, the sulfur levels before desulfurization are 0.02 to 0.03% S, while input sulfur levels to the cupola are generally much higher—0.1 to 0.2% S. For binary...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... squeeze-casting equipment. Aikoh's (Japan) flux injection technology is initiated into U.S. aluminum foundry market. Late 1980s—3-D visualization techniques are developed. CaO/CaF 2 desulfurization of cupola-melted ductile base iron begins to replace CaC 2 method. Lanxide, Newark, Del., develops...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... compared to cupola furnaces. Induction furnaces are very efficient and are made in many sizes. Induction furnaces are relatively simple, and small quantities can be melted quickly. The melting time is relatively short, allowing metal to be delivered at small, regular intervals. A wide range of metals can...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... furnaces (several hundred in 30 min) and cupolas (1/10 that of blast furnace tapping). Launders are also used in smaller furnaces, where melt is transferred from one chamber to another (see, for example, the article “Vacuum Induction Melting” in this Volume). With systems opertaing under atmospheric...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... also raises the value of scrap, which enables more to be recycled. As a major producer and consumer of stainless steel, the United States usually has excess stainless steel scrap, which is exported. Superalloys can be roughly divided into two broad categories: air-melted and vacuum-melted alloys...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., ASM Handbook , ASM International, 1988, p 82–87. The gases in cast iron that can cause porosity are hydrogen and nitrogen. Castings from iron produced in a cupola are nearly saturated with nitrogen; therefore, the presence of nitrogen is a major concern ( Ref 2 ). Hydrogen and nitrogen dissolve in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... temperature at which the body is vitrified. Vitrification is the heat treatment to which the body is subjected. During this process some of the raw materials melt and form a glass. This glass brings about the progressive reduction in body porosity while acting to bond the remaining body constituents. As...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in cupolas, electric arc furnaces, or induction furnaces. Ductile iron, as a liquid, has high fluidity, excellent castability, but high surface tension. The sands and molding equipment used for ductile iron must provide rigid molds of high density and good heat transfer. Most of the...