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cumulative distribution function

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... used statistical distributions: normal, log normal, Weibull, and exponential, which are continuous in nature and binomial Poisson and hypergeometric, which are discrete functions. Each of these statistical distributions are briefly described below. References 34 , 35 , and 36 provide a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... temperature to room temperature. The best hope for the increased optimization of mechanical stress-relieving techniques is improved multiscale models of microstructural evolution during quenching. These models must be capable of predicting the microstructure as a function of quench path to account for the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Surfactant interaction with ceramic powders is dominated by the surface charge distribution typical of crystalline or amorphous ionic materials, as modified by the dielectric properties of the solvent system in polar solvents. Surfactants have several functions in the additive system, which may be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... example, which illustrates the optimization procedure. An objective function, which is denoted by J , is much like a cumulative grade that ranks one design versus another. For each design, J is simply a number, and it represents a composite metric of “successes” that the design would...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Machine vision, also referred to as computer vision or intelligent vision, is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye and brain system with digital techniques. The machine vision functionality is extremely useful in inspection, supervision...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...-density distribution as transformed from defects having an activation energy, Q . With the measured parameters of Eq 18 as input, together with the measured V ¯ ( f ) behavior of Fig. 15 , the evolution of f with temperature and time a cumulative autocatalytic p ( n ) function well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.9781627081948
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., producing a time harmonic displacement function of t ; that is, u 0 ( t ) = U sin ω t , where U is displacement amplitude, and ω is angular frequency. Due to cumulative nonlinear distortion over the propagation path of the wave, the initially harmonic wave becomes anharmonic, given by the expression...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... used along with hierarchical polycrystal plasticity simulations for γ-γ′ nickel-base superalloys ( Ref 40 , Ref 41 , Ref 42 ) to estimate the nucleation and growth of distributed small fatigue cracks for a range of powder metallurgy-processed IN 100 microstructures as a function of applied strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... stress measurement. This shallow depth of penetration allows high-resolution determination of residual-stress distributions as functions of depth, nominally 10 to 100 times the resolution of mechanical or neutron diffraction methods. A condition of plane stress exists in the thin diffracting surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... function corresponding to the permanent change associated with the source process. The corresponding velocity and stress waveforms are basically pulselike. The energy spectral density extends from zero frequency up to a frequency inversely proportional to the duration of the movement. At the low end of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... investigate the temperature variation during hot-die disk-forging processes. The flow stress of thermo-rigid-viscoplastic material is a function of temperature, strain, and strain rate. Approximately five aerospace manufacturers pioneered the use of the code. Based on the same foundation, DEFORM was developed...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... compares, for the two extremes, the copper concentration in the solid phase(s) at the solid/liquid interface as a function of the cumulative fraction of solid. For equilibrium freezing, the composition of the solid changes continuously to be equal to the interface composition (indicated by the dotted curve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... subgrains that was developed along an initial grain boundary marked by arrows. The inset shows the misorientations regarding the grain interior as a function of the distance from the grain boundary. Thin-foil TEM specimen prepared parallel to the rolling plane. Original magnification 7300×. Source: Ref 11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... boundary marked by arrows. The inset shows the misorientations regarding the grain interior as a function of the distance from the grain boundary. Thin-foil transmission electron microscopy specimen prepared parallel to the rolling plane. Original magnification: 7300×. Source: Ref 5 Grain-boundary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... heat transfer model or inaccurate heat transfer data will eventually result in considerable errors in the predicted microstructure, distortion, and residual stresses even though metallurgical and mechanical field calculations are functioning perfectly. Fourier's heat conduction equation with an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) strength (σ 0 ) of the emerging wire. Otherwise it would simply break at the die exit (or at the point where the drawn wire contacts the capstan). The limiting single-pass reduction, or the reduction at which σ d = σ 0 is a function of die design, friction, and the work-hardening character of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... keV).  The matrix corrections have inherent uncertainty that arises from limitations on the accuracy of the ionization depth distribution function that forms the basis for calculating the corrections, as well as uncertainty in the physical parameters that are needed, especially the mass absorption...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... importance in assuring product safety. Another important consideration, however, is that the product or material have the necessary properties to carry out its proposed function. To evaluate these two fundamentally important issues, it is necessary to perform material and chemical characterization on...