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cumulative damage

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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 20 Plot of cumulative damage versus time, with several maintenance options More
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
of the cumulative damage factor C and the critical damage factor C * estimated from uniaxial-tension tests. Source: Ref 83 More
Image
Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 8 Crack growth in 7075-T7351 aluminum alloy subject to spectrum loading. (a) Crack-growth comparison between model and experiment. LCD is a linear-cumulative damage model, and α = 1.8 is a constant constraint model. (b) Wing gust and maneuver loading spectrum. Source: Ref 23 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... instabilities caused by cyclic deformations. It discusses the effect of mean stress on fatigue life and presents the analysis of cumulative fatigue damage. The article concludes with examples of application techniques for fatigue life prediction. cyclic deformation cyclic stress-strain curve fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... or strain range. In this technique, engineering components are designed for a certain life-based on empirical stress (or strain) versus life ( S - N ) curves and on cumulative damage growth laws ( Ref 9 ). A variation of these approaches, sometimes referred to as enhanced safe life, characterizes S - N...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... visual analysis MECHANICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL LOADINGS cause a variety of failure modes in composites, including matrix cracking, fiber- matrix debonding, delamination between plies, and fiber breakage. A cumulative state of damage for a composite includes a percentage of each of these loading...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of mean stress. Fig. 2 S-N curve for unnotched 2024-T4 aluminum alloy bar. Source: Ref 2 Variable-Amplitude Loading and Cumulative Damage While constant-amplitude loading is useful for defining fatigue properties and comparing test data, variable-amplitude loading, such as that shown...
Image
Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 10 Less common types of cumulative erosion-versus-time curves sometimes obtained. (a) Curve without incubation or acceleration stages, with continuously decreasing rate (obtained in this case with very small droplets and very high impact velocity). (b) Curve with continuously increasing More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., for example, at 95 or 98% and be specified in damage tolerance requirements. Given the calculated crack growth curve, the permissible crack size, and the probability of detection for the relevant specificity and accessibility, the cumulative probability of detection can be calculated for different lengths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... functions, and are known as the probability density function, cumulative density function, and inverse cdf, respectively. A good overview of probabilistic concepts treated in an engineering vein can be found in Ang and Tang ( Ref 13 ). Quantities with near-zero mean values cannot use the COV...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to erosion. Cavitation is caused by the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles in a liquid near a metal surface. Impingement refers to damage caused by liquid jets, droplets, or solid particles impacting a solid surface. Mechanical damage to metal surfaces removes protective films. These films can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of both the cumulative damage caused by corrosion and the rate of the deterioration, because the costs associated with corrosion problems can be huge and the risks devastating. (See the article “Direct Costs of Corrosion in the United States” in this Volume). The term on-line monitoring , as used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the cumulative generation of a second-harmonic wave ( Ref 39 ). These conditions require that both phase and group velocities of the second-harmonic wave mode match the phase and group velocities of the fundamental wave mode. Applications The application of NLU to characterize plasticity-driven damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... and the life-fraction rule, or other damage rules. The most common approach to calculation of cumulative creep damage is to compute the amount of life expended by using time or strain fractions as measures of damage. When the fractional damages add up to unity, then failure is postulated to occur. The most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... was based on linear cumulative damage laws. The spectra were simplified by eliminating nondamaging cycles with stresses below the endurance limit. This was possible because crack initiation damage is not as sensitive to low-level cycles as crack propagation damage. However, for crack propagation analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... damage may occur when surfaces in contact with fluid are subjected to vibrations (e.g., water-cooled diesel-engine cylinder liner). Sometimes, cavitation can initiate other types of wear such as adhesion or abrasion because of wear particles produced at the friction interface, making the failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., or erosion Development of occluded geometry Relaxation of stress Types of Corrosion Damage A generally accepted classification scheme of corrosion damage is based on the appearance of a corrosion attack. The term form of corrosion generally is attributed to Ref 17 . The eight basic forms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in the airplane structure have driven incremental and cumulative corrosion-control improvements over many years of airplane design. Boeing's newest commercial aircraft, the 787, will use significantly less aluminum. This choice is already causing changes in design and manufacture for corrosion prevention...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of samples prone to abrasion damage and artifacts for quantitative image analysis. abrasion artifacts abrasion damage computer technology microhardness analysis microstructural analysis optical microscopy quantitative image analysis sample preparation surface analysis surface finishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... temperature. In addition, the load cell and cabling should have shielding to prevent electronic noise, particularly as induced from specimen heating systems. Load cells are designed with overload protection, which prevents damage of the cell due to misuse, and must be rated for fatigue testing...