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crystallography

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract The misorientation of a boundary of a growing grain is defined not only by its crystallography but also by the crystallography of the grain into which it is growing. This article focuses on the Monte Carlo Potts model that is typically used to model grain growth, Zener-Smith pinning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors involved in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the physical metallurgy of cast cobalt alloys with emphasis on crystallography, compositions, phases and microstructure, and properties. Cobalt alloys are cast by several different foundry methods. The article describes the argon-oxygen decarburization and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... phase equilibria, crystallography, and deformation behavior of titanium and titanium alloys. The article describes the modeling and simulation of recrystallization and grain growth of single-phase beta and single-phase alpha titanium. The deformation- and transformation-texture evolution of two-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a technique for investigating the crystallography of surfaces and overlayers adsorbed on surfaces. This article provides a brief account of LEED, covering the principles and measurements of diffraction from surfaces. Some of the processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This introductory article provides basic information on the various aspects of solid-state transformation: multiphase microstructures, substructures, and crystallography, which assist in characterizing the morphology of phase transformations. It contains a flowchart that illustrating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a technique for investigating the crystallography of surfaces and overlayers adsorbed on surfaces. This article describes the principles of diffraction from surfaces, and elucidates the method of sample preparation to achieve diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the integration of thermodynamic modeling, mobility database, and phase-transformation crystallography into phase-field modeling and its combination with transformation texture modeling to predict phase equilibrium, phase transformation, microstructure evolution...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Microstructural analysis is the combined characterization of the morphology, elemental composition, and crystallography of microstructural features through the use of a microscope. This article reviews three types of the most commonly used electron microscopies in metallurgical studies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract This article discusses the history of shape memory alloys (SMAs) along with their properties, capabilities, and crystallography, including phase transformations that occur during thermal treatment. It describes the thermomechanical behaviors of SMAs and explains how to characterize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... made of various materials Laser light Images of surface topographical features or other near-field and far-field interactions between probe and sample surface 0.2–10 nm 10–80 pm Biological molecules, biomaterials, cells, crystallography, electrochemistry, polymer chemistry, thin-film studies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... References 1. Space-Group Symmetry , Vol A, International Tables for Crystallography , Aroyo M.I. , Ed., International Union of Crystallography/John Wiley & Sons , 2016 2. Authier A. , Early Days of X-Ray Crystallography , Oxford University Press , 2013 10.1093...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... factors, such as crystallography, grain size and shape, grain heterogeneity, second phases, impurity inclusions, and residual stress, that can influence corrosion. Most metals/alloys of technological importance are polycrystalline aggregates, with each individual crystal referred to as a grain. Grain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... crystallography. For alloys that contain two or more elements, the placement of the alloying elements in the crystal structure can be random or ordered. Random elemental placements are referred to as solid solutions. For example, pure gold and silver have face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structures, are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Microstructural analysis is the combined characterization of the morphology, elemental composition, and crystallography of microstructural features through the use of a microscope. Light microscopes have been used to characterize the microstructures of metals for over 100 years. The methods and applications of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Orientation Studies Using Two-Dimensional Detectors , Adv. X-Ray Anal. , Vol 37 , 1994 , p 367 – 373 10.1154/S0376030800015883 9. “Göbel Mirrors for Parallel Beam,” CCP14 , Crystallography Laboratory University of Nijmegen, http://www.ccp14.ac.uk/ccp/web-mirrors/dirdif/xtal/documents/equipment/d8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 26. Kelly A. and Groves G.W. , Crystallography and Crystal Defects , Addison-Wesley , 1970 27. Prince E. , Mathematical Techniques in Crystallography and Materials Science , Springer-Verlag , 1982 28. van Bueren H.G. , Imperfections in Crystals , North...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Approach to EBSD Indexing , Ultramicroscopy , Vol 181 , 2017 , p 17 – 26 , 10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.04.016 AUTOMATED ELECTRON BACKSCATTER DIFFRACTION (EBSD) is a technique that allows the crystallography of a sample to be determined in a suitably equipped scanning electron microscope (SEM). In...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... , International Union of Crystallography, 1940 to the present 3. Hubbard C.R. and Calvert L.D. , Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams , Vol 2 , 1981 , p 153 – 156 10.1007/BF02881453 4. Hahn T. , Ed., International Tables for Crystallography , Vol A , International Union of...