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crystallography

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Image
Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 1 Close-packed planes/directions and crystallography of (a) hexagonal close-packed alpha titanium and (b) body-centered cubic beta titanium. The close-packed layer of atoms lying between the upper and lower close-packed layers has been removed from (a) for clarity. (c) Burgers orientation More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...Abstract Abstract The misorientation of a boundary of a growing grain is defined not only by its crystallography but also by the crystallography of the grain into which it is growing. This article focuses on the Monte Carlo Potts model that is typically used to model grain growth, Zener-Smith...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This introductory article provides basic information on the various aspects of solid-state transformation: multiphase microstructures, substructures, and crystallography, which assist in characterizing the morphology of phase transformations. It contains a flowchart...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the history of shape memory alloys (SMAs) along with their properties, capabilities, and crystallography, including phase transformations that occur during thermal treatment. It describes the thermomechanical behaviors of SMAs and explains how...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Abstract Abstract Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a technique for investigating the crystallography of surfaces and overlayers adsorbed on surfaces. This article describes the principles of diffraction from surfaces, and elucidates the method of sample preparation to achieve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the integration of thermodynamic modeling, mobility database, and phase-transformation crystallography into phase-field modeling and its combination with transformation texture modeling to predict phase equilibrium, phase transformation, microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a technique for investigating the crystallography of surfaces and overlayers adsorbed on surfaces. This article provides a brief account of LEED, covering the principles and measurements of diffraction from surfaces. Some...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Microstructural analysis is the combined characterization of the morphology, elemental composition, and crystallography of microstructural features through the use of a microscope. This article reviews three types of the most commonly used electron microscopies...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the physical metallurgy of cast cobalt alloys with an emphasis on the crystallography, compositions, phases and microstructure, and properties. Cobalt alloys are cast by several different foundry methods. The article describes the argon-oxygen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... It discusses the phase equilibria, crystallography, and deformation behavior of titanium and titanium alloys. The article describes the modeling and simulation of recrystallization and grain growth of single-phase beta and single-phase alpha titanium. The deformation- and transformation-texture evolution...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 17 Scanning electron micrograph of a zirconia toughened ceramic (ZTC), thermally etched in air at 1300 °C (2730 °F). Lighter, tetragonal ZrO 2 grains are dispersed in the Al 2 O 3 matrix. The parallel arrays of facets within the grains are related to the ZTC crystallography. More
Image
Published: 01 November 2010
crystallography, this dependence demonstrates qualitatively the effect of grain-boundary plane inclination on the grain-boundary energy for a grain boundary with fixed misorientational degrees of freedom. Source: Ref 38 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... force microscopy (AFM) Coated or noncoated cantilever probes made of various materials Laser light Images of surface topographical features or other near-field and far-field interactions between probe and sample surface 0.2–10 nm 10–80 pm Biological molecules, biomaterials, cells, crystallography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of crystallography and the symmetry of crystalline substances, as well as some aspects and formulas of XRD theory ( Ref 1 – 13 ). Crystal Symmetry The crystalline state of a substance is characterized by the three-dimensional periodicity of atomic and molecular arrangement. This feature underlies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to alloying, there are metallurgical factors, such as crystallography, grain size and shape, grain heterogeneity, second phases, impurity inclusions, and residual stress, that can influence corrosion. Most metals/alloys of technological importance are polycrystalline aggregates, with each individual crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...) structures. Crystal structures often found in metallic phases are described in the article “Crystal Structure” in this Section, and some texts apply the fundamentals of crystallography to metals ( Ref 26 , 27 ). Crystal imperfections include point defects, such as impurity atoms, vacancies and vacancy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... in crystallography. For alloys that contain two or more elements, the placement of the alloying elements in the crystal structure can be random or ordered. Random elemental placements are referred to as solid solutions. For example, pure gold and silver have face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... analysis, and applications and interpretation of micro-XRD. micro X-ray diffraction XRD detectors Overview Introduction X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been a fundamental tool in the field of crystallography as applied to practically every industrial sector for over a century. Conventionally...