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crystallography

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors involved in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract The misorientation of a boundary of a growing grain is defined not only by its crystallography but also by the crystallography of the grain into which it is growing. This article focuses on the Monte Carlo Potts model that is typically used to model grain growth, Zener-Smith pinning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a technique for investigating the crystallography of surfaces and overlayers adsorbed on surfaces. This article provides a brief account of LEED, covering the principles and measurements of diffraction from surfaces. Some of the processes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the physical metallurgy of cast cobalt alloys with emphasis on crystallography, compositions, phases and microstructure, and properties. Cobalt alloys are cast by several different foundry methods. The article describes the argon-oxygen decarburization and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the integration of thermodynamic modeling, mobility database, and phase-transformation crystallography into phase-field modeling and its combination with transformation texture modeling to predict phase equilibrium, phase transformation, microstructure evolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... phase equilibria, crystallography, and deformation behavior of titanium and titanium alloys. The article describes the modeling and simulation of recrystallization and grain growth of single-phase beta and single-phase alpha titanium. The deformation- and transformation-texture evolution of two-phase...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Microstructural analysis is the combined characterization of the morphology, elemental composition, and crystallography of microstructural features through the use of a microscope. This article reviews three types of the most commonly used electron microscopies in metallurgical studies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... made of various materials Laser light Images of surface topographical features or other near-field and far-field interactions between probe and sample surface 0.2–10 nm 10–80 pm Biological molecules, biomaterials, cells, crystallography, electrochemistry, polymer chemistry, thin-film studies...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... crystallography. For alloys that contain two or more elements, the placement of the alloying elements in the crystal structure can be random or ordered. Random elemental placements are referred to as solid solutions. For example, pure gold and silver have face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structures, are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... morphology, elemental composition, and crystallography of microstructural features through the use of a microscope. Light microscopes have been used to characterize the microstructures of metals for over 100 years. The methods and applications of light microscopy are covered in the article “Light Optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... diffraction crystallographic texture AUTOMATED ELECTRON BACKSCATTER DIFFRACTION (EBSD) is a technique that allows the crystallography of a sample to be determined in a suitably equipped scanning electron microscope (SEM). In brief, a prepared specimen that is flat and free from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., first we discuss the fundamentals of crystallography and the symmetry of crystalline substances, as well as some aspects and formulas of XRD theory ( Ref 1 – 13 ). The crystalline state of a substance is characterized by the three-dimensional periodicity of atomic and molecular arrangement. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... specimen after interaction with the primary electrons include energy loss electrons, characteristic x-rays, and so on, as shown in Fig. 17 . These signals can be used individually or in various combinations to characterize microstructure, crystallography, and compositional variations in various materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... applications and interpretation of micro-XRD. micro X-ray diffraction XRD detectors X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been a fundamental tool in the field of crystallography as applied to practically every industrial sector for over a century. Conventionally, XRD was constrained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... reactions atomistic modeling shear modulus bonding energy INTERFACE REACTIONS cannot be understood and modeled without knowing the structure of interfaces. However, there are an infinite number of possible interface structures, depending on the interface crystallography and physical parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... most of the alloys of engineering interest, this information is available in tabulations of the International Tables for Crystallography in the form of space groups, describing the symmetry of the lattice, and Wyckoff positions, describing the atomic sites (position and chemistry) ( Ref 41...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... of atomic arrangement. A crystal consists of unit cells stacked tightly together, each identical in size, shape, and orientation with all others. The choice of the boundaries of a unit cell is somewhat arbitrary, being conditioned by symmetry considerations and by convenience. Crystallography uses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... mesoscale and, finally, at the macroscale. Shear bands follow principal shear directions, and mechanics, rather than crystallography, dictates their morphology. Therefore, continuum stress/strain states should be accommodated inside SBs in very small material volumes. As a result, severe plastic deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... ship plate, Ref 48 ), bismuth ( Ref 35 ), zinc ( Ref 37 ), antimony ( Ref 42 ), molybdenum ( Ref 44 ), and tungsten ( Ref 45 ), from which he described in considerable detail the appearance and crystallography of cleavage facets. Figures 5(a) and 5(b) are examples of Zapffe's early work. Fig...