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crystallographic anisotropy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... such process. The reader is referred to the article “Transformation and Recrystallization Textures Associated with Steel Processing” in this Volume and to Ref 4 for a discussion of recrystallization simulations. Crystallographic Anisotropy and the Yield Surface Since plasticity and texture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Abstract This article discusses the central aspect of anisotropy modeling, namely, texture measurement and analysis. It provides an overview of the methods available for characterizing crystallographic preferred orientation, or texture, in polycrystalline materials. These methods include pole...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... (anisotropy) can occur. When anisotropy is controlled, improved strength can be attained under biaxial stress conditions. The increased strength, as a result of crystallographic texture, is called texture strengthening. Texture strengthening is most pronounced in α-titanium alloys and offers a potential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... energy in this idealized geometry is the sum of exchange ( E ex ), crystallographic anisotropy ( E K ), magnetoelastic ( E el ), magnetostatic ( E ms ), and domain wall ( E γ ) energies ( Ref 25 ). Each energy term and its contribution to the formation of domain structures is considered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006905
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
..., but the consideration of affinity in vivo derived from the structure is also important. It is essential that the bone/implant interface be functionally fused and connected by bone with sound anisotropy to behave as a functional material. The body fluid/cell invasion into the porous structure and the cell adhesion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... axial stresses may be produced. Dimensional changes have been attributed to the development of crystallographic anisotropy that arises because of a continuous change in the orientation of individual grains. This produces preferred orientation, where the yield stresses and macroscopic stress versus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the symmetries are anisotropies of the mechanical properties, both elastic and plastic, of the individual crystals. Anisotropy is evident even at the continuum scale in aggregates of crystals having preferred orientations of the crystal lattices, known as crystallographic texture. The behaviors observed during...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... conditions, and the selection of the grains occurs due to the anisotropy property of the interface energy. Initially, the chill crystals are oriented randomly. However, those crystals that are oriented with the preferred crystallographic direction in the heat flow direction will be selected. This is because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... is assigned a grain index, an integer from 1 to some number, that indicates the local crystallographic orientation. Lattice sites having the same grain index value belong to the same grain. A grain-boundary segment lies between two sites of unlike orientation. The initial distribution of orientations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... dimensions: (Eq 5) σ = σ 0 [ 1 + ε 4 cos ( 4 θ ) ] where σ 0 is the nominal interfacial energy, ε 4 is a relative anisotropy parameter, and θ is the angle between the normal vector to the solid/liquid interface and the <100> crystallographic orientation. A more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... crystallographic anisotropy) arises from the alignment of grains in the general direction of material flow during deformation. (This type of anisotropy can be eliminated or minimized by annealing.) Mechanical fibering is due to the alignment of impurities, inclusions (stringers), and voids in the material during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... electrons to return to equilibrium from their resonant state. Two of the most common methods for measuring this relaxation time are presented as are several application examples. crystallographic anisotropy electron spin ESR magnetic resonance paramagnetic resonance relaxation time Overview...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... with respect to macroscopic axes. At low temperature compared to the melting point, metals and alloys deform by dislocation glide or slip on given crystallographic planes and directions, which produces microscopic shear deformations ( Ref 4 ). Therefore, the distribution of grain orientations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of the anisotropy, where the calculated volume change is illustrated as a function of temperature. It concludes with a review of kinetic of graphite expansion. anisotropy cast iron dilatometer analysis furnaces graphite expansion linear displacement metal shrinkage solidification volumetric changes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... magnetic properties in different crystallographic directions. In nickel, the direction of easiest magnetization is the cube diagonal ⟨111⟩; in iron it is the cube edge ⟨100⟩. Crystal orientation, therefore, is a basic factor in the determination and control of magnetic properties. High-Purity Irons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... Fabrication route may also play a key role in affecting the preferred crystallographic orientation (or texture) of the grains, further contributing to the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of the microstructure. As will be shown later, all of these microstructural features can greatly influence the properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., environment, crystallographic orientation, or even applied state of stress, appear to have three common aspects ( Ref 86 , 87 , 88 , 90 , 92 , 94 , 96 , 97 , 99 , 101 , 102 ): Regions in which the crack appears to propagate on {111} planes and shows no evidence of being deflected by γ...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... are the classical ferromagnetic metals iron, nickel, and cobalt and their alloys in single crystal and polycrystalline form. The rare earths (except gadolinium) are difficult to study using FMR because of their enormous anisotropy fields. However, remarkable developments have taken place over the past ten years...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... that can be associated with a particular location on a sample in 2-D, such as crystallographic orientation, chemical composition, or phase, can in principle be used to produce a 3-D image, if the material can be adequately sectioned and digitally reconstructed, or nondestructively imaged in 3-D...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... as well. Schmid's Law Crystal plasticity has as its origin Schmid's law, which states that crystallographic slip is initiated when a critical resolved shear stress on a slip plane in a slip direction is reached. As shown in Fig. 1 , crystallographic slip initiates in uniaxial tension when...