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crystalline solids

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... spectrometer detection); D = after dissolution/extraction; V = volatile solids or components, pyrolyzed solids; C = crystalline solids. (a) AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; AFM, atomic force microscopy; COMB, high-temperature combustion; EFG, elemental and functional group analysis; EPMA, electron probe x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article focuses on ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics, and their derivatives, that is, inorganic-organic hybrids, in the forms of solid or porous bodies, oxide layers/coatings, and particles with sizes ranging from nanometers to micrometers, or even millimetres. These include inert...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... are intermediate between the two pure metals, and whose crystalline structures are different from those of the pure metals. The difference in crystalline structure distinguishes intermediate phases from primary solid solutions, which are based on pure metals. Some intermediate phases can accurately be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the application of amorphous and crystalline films through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from the view point of microelectronic device fabrication. It describes the various types of PECVD reactors and deposition techniques. Plasma enhancement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... metal is alloyed with another metal, either substitutional or interstitial solid solutions ( Fig. 6 ) are usually formed. Substitutional solid solutions are those in which the solute and solvent atoms are similar in size, and the solute atoms substitute for solvent atoms on the solvent crystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... complete melting (100% liquid phase) of an alloy depends on the relative concentration of alloying elements. Alloying also affects the stable crystalline phase of a solid. Depending on how two or more elements behave when mixed, the elements may form different crystalline phases and/or chemical compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... at an invariant point on the phase diagram of an alloy, where the initial (parent) phase may be either a liquid or a crystalline solid. Solid-state invariant reactions are a category of heterogeneous phase transformations that involve moving reaction boundaries and phase separation. Invariant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the application of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in materials science, especially for inorganic and organic polymer solids. It begins with a discussion on the general principles of NMR, providing information on nuclear spin...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Mechanical properties are often the most important properties in the design and selection of engineering plastics. Temperature, molecular structure, crystallinity, viscoelasticity, and effects of environment, fillers and reinforcements are considered as the basic factors affecting the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... shown in Fig. 3 . Crystalline solid phases cannot be formed from the melt with concentrations beyond the T 0 curve (to the liquid side), no matter how much nonequilibrium is involved. If the T 0 curves of the two solid phases of a binary eutectic plunge steeply, leaving a region of composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in the previous section, the acoustic nonlinearity parameter includes contributions from both geometrical nonlinearity and material nonlinearity. The intrinsic material nonlinearity of the intact material (e.g., the perfect lattice of a crystalline solid like a metal) is represented by its third...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... caused by distortion of the crystalline lattice of the solvent metal by additions of the solute. The distortion increases with the amount of the solute metal added, and the maximum hardening effect of a solid solution occurs at binary concentrations near 50 at.%, because either metal can be considered as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... analytical chemistry. Mechanical methods and nonoxidizing acids and/or acid mixtures for dissolving solid samples for wet chemical analysis are then reviewed. Qualitative methods that are used to identify materials by wet chemical reaction are also included. The article provides information on various...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract The crystal structure of a material is an important aspect of corrosion and oxidation processes. This article provides a general introduction to the crystal structure of materials, providing information on the crystal systems, lattice dimensions, nomenclature, and solid-solution...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Cast iron exhibits a considerable amount of eutectic in the solid state. This article discusses the structure of liquid iron-carbon alloys to understand the mechanism of the solidification of cast iron. It illustrates nucleation of the austenite-flake graphite eutectic, austenite...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for that structure. Generally accepted prototypes for some metal crystals are listed in Fig. 4 . Many metals, and some nonmetals, exist in more than one crystalline form, a phenomenon known as polymorphism. When found in elemental solids, the condition is known as allotropy. The prevailing...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... build-up at the solid-liquid interface forming transients and steady state, the morphological stability/instability and perturbation theory, and rapid solidification effects, including solute trapping and oscillatory instabilities. The article presents a microstructural selection map that gives an...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... resistance, and other properties. This article discusses the fundamentals of sintering and its effects on pore structures and particle density. It addresses some of the more common sintering methods, including solid-state, liquid-phase, and gas pressure sintering, and presents alternative processes such as...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... alloy of exactly eutectic composition. It concludes with a discussion on terminal solid solutions. aluminum-silicon eutectic system crystal structure dendrites eutectic microstructure eutectic system fibrous eutectics irregular eutectics lamellar eutectics lead-tin eutectic system regular...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract A thermosetting resin, or thermoset, is a synthetic organic polymer that cures to a solid, infusible mass by forming a three-dimensional network of covalent chemical bonds. Significant applications include construction and thermoset engineering plastics. This article discusses the...