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crystalline defects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Abstract This article focuses on the relationships among material properties and material structure. It summarizes the fundamental characteristics of metals, ceramics, and polymers. The article provides information on crystal structure, atomic coordination, and crystalline defects. It discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... on the simulation of defects related to grain textures and microstructures. The article provides information on the application of the most important simulation approaches and the status of numerical simulation. defects grain textures microstructure numerical simulation solidification IN MOST...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... perfection and sample homogeneity Instrumental aberrations Spectral distribution Applications: Crystallite size Size distributions Lattice distortions Crystal defects Inhomogeneous strain Sample inhomogeneity Crystallinity Amorphous state (a) Source: Ref 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... strongly dependent on the density and distribution of crystalline defects. While many oxides are insulating, a subset of oxide materials exhibit resistances and band gaps within the semiconducting range. These semiconductors are commonly transition metal oxides that are typically polycrystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... crystalline solids, inorganic noncrystalline solids, and polymers. The article describes the various strengthening mechanisms of crystalline solids, namely, work hardening, solid-solution hardening, particle/precipitation hardening, and grain size hardening. Deformation and strengthening of composite...
Book Chapter

By W.L. Johnson
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... in terms of continuous random packings. The continuous nature of the structure implies the absence of spatially extended defects such as grain boundaries or dislocations, which commonly occur in crystalline materials. Computer simulation studies in which dislocationlike defects were introduced into a model...
Book Chapter

By Sam Nasser
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract Physically, tantalum is a dark, blue-gray, lusterless metal that exists in two crystalline forms: an alpha-phase with a body-centered cubic structure, and a brittle beta-phase with a tetragonal orientation. This article tabulates the physical and material properties of tantalum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... inert crystalline ceramics, porous ceramics, calcium phosphate ceramics, and bioactive glasses. The article discusses the compositions of ceramics and carbon-base implant materials, and examines their differences in processing and structure. It describes the chemical and microstructural basis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the application of amorphous and crystalline films through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from the view point of microelectronic device fabrication. It describes the various types of PECVD reactors and deposition techniques. Plasma enhancement...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract In some phase diagrams, the appearance of several reactions is the result of the presence of intermediate phases. These are phases whose chemical compositions are intermediate between two pure metals, and whose crystalline structures are different from those of the pure metals...
Book Chapter

By Karl K. Chang
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0009242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract The chemical composition of Kevlar aramid fiber is poly para-phenyleneterephthalamide. Para-aramid fibers belong to a class of materials known as liquid crystalline polymers. This article discusses the manufacture of aramid fibers and the major fiber forms, such as continuous filament...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and quantifying phase mixtures in powder samples. It provides information on typical sensitivity and experimental limits on precision of XRPD analysis and other systematic sources of errors that affect accuracy. Some of the factors pertinent to the estimation of crystallite size and defects are also presented...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Mechanical properties are often the most important properties in the design and selection of engineering plastics. Temperature, molecular structure, crystallinity, viscoelasticity, and effects of environment, fillers and reinforcements are considered as the basic factors affecting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... methods are very appealing because they are based on the culmination of our understanding of quantum mechanics and the electron-ion many-body problem. While the starting point for such calculations requires only the most basic knowledge of chemistry, physics, and crystalline and defect structures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of cold work, the finer the grain size ( Fig. 20 ). Because grain boundaries are a crystalline defect, continued annealing will cause this array of grains to be unstable, and grain growth will take place. Grain growth in a recrystallized specimen decreases the grain-boundary surface area to specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article aims to identify and illustrate the types of overload failures, which are categorized as failures due to insufficient material strength and underdesign, failures due to stress concentration and material defects, and failures due to material alteration. It describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., or crystalline versus noncrystalline structure. The article describes the various aspects of chemical structure that are important to an understanding of polymer properties and, thus, affect eventual end uses. It discusses different types of names assigned to polymers. The article details the aspects of polymer...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Laboratories In addition to contrast arising from grain-to-grain orientation differences, any crystalline defects that result in local variations in diffraction also produce light and dark contrast in the image. As a result, defects such as dislocations and stacking faults can be imaged by the TEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... called dislocations) into the otherwise uniform arrangement of the atoms (a body-centered cubic crystalline array for this alloy). These defects increase strength in the regions of the bends, causing the difficulties associated with the straightening of the coat hanger. A corollary to the above example...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Crystal structure is the arrangement of atoms or molecules in the solid state that involves consideration of defects, or abnormalities, in idealized atomic/molecular arrangements. The three-dimensional aggregation of unit cells in the crystal forms a space lattice or Bravais lattice...