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crystalline defects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Abstract This article focuses on the relationships among material properties and material structure. It summarizes the fundamental characteristics of metals, ceramics, and polymers. The article provides information on the crystal structure, the atomic coordination, and crystalline defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of carbon, manganese, and silicon). It is now well established that the deformation of the wire during the original production of the coat hanger introduces structural defects (line defects called dislocations) into the otherwise uniform arrangement of the atoms (a body-centered cubic crystalline array...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of crystalline defects. While many oxides are insulating, a subset of oxide materials exhibit resistances and band gaps within the semiconducting range. These semiconductors are commonly transition metal oxides that are typically polycrystalline or polyphasic. Some oxides form naturally on metallic surfaces...
Book Chapter

By W.L. Johnson
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract Metallic glasses can be prepared by solidification of liquid alloys at cooling rates sufficient to suppress the nucleation and growth of competing crystalline phases. This article presents a historical survey of the study of metallic glasses and other amorphous metals and alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of defects as pure metals. Additionally, crystalline alloys may consist of a solid solution of one or more elements (solutes) in the major (base) component, or they may contain more than one phase. That is, adjacent grains may have slightly or extremely different compositions and be of identical or disparate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... In the fully amorphous state, they contain none of the classical crystalline or chemical defects found in crystalline solids, such as grain boundaries, dislocations, stacking faults, and second-phase particles, and they are chemically and structurally homogeneous. Older glassy alloys were produced from two...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Lattice distortions Crystal defects Inhomogeneous strain Sample inhomogeneity Crystallinity Amorphous state (a) Source: Ref 3 Single crystal and powder experiments are affected by strain and defects. Spot patterns show misshapen spots and streaking; powder patterns...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... as 10 μm 2 . The type of information desired may range from the question of sample crystallinity or its composition, to details of the crystal structure or the state of orientation of the crystallites, to information about residual macrostresses, to size and defects of the crystallites. Crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... used to study most of the recrystallization. The size of the recrystallized grains depends on the amount of cold working of the specimen before the recrystallization anneal. The greater the amount of cold work, the finer the grain size ( Fig. 20 ). Because grain boundaries are a crystalline defect...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., or crystalline versus noncrystalline structure. The article describes the various aspects of chemical structure that are important to an understanding of polymer properties and, thus, affect eventual end uses. It discusses different types of names assigned to polymers. The article details the aspects of polymer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... crystalline solids, inorganic noncrystalline solids, and polymers. The article describes the various strengthening mechanisms of crystalline solids, namely, work hardening, solid-solution hardening, particle/precipitation hardening, and grain size hardening. Deformation and strengthening of composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., and orientation; fiber, matrix, and void-volume fractions; fiber/matrix adhesion; material crystallinity; and material defects such as porosity, delaminations, and microcracking. The article also details several different techniques used for sample preparation of different materials, including information...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... diffraction, topographic methods are used to survey the lattice structure and imperfections in crystalline materials. The method and procedure used depend largely on the density of defects present and the nature of the crystalline material to be examined, but all methods share the capability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and quantifying phase mixtures in powder samples. It provides information on typical sensitivity and experimental limits on precision of XRPD analysis and other systematic sources of errors that affect accuracy. Some of the factors pertinent to the estimation of crystallite size and defects are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article describes the Schottky defect and the Frenkel defect in oxides. It provides information on the p-type metal-deficit oxides and n-type semiconductor oxides. The article discusses diffusion mechanisms and laws of diffusion proposed by Fick. It explains the oxide texture...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Mechanical properties are often the most important properties in the design and selection of engineering plastics. Temperature, molecular structure, crystallinity, viscoelasticity, and effects of environment, fillers and reinforcements are considered as the basic factors affecting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... principally for synthetic (acrylic) fibers because its rodlike molecules form highly crystalline bundles and the high degree of hydrogen bonding provides high mechanical, thermal, and chemical resistance. With its low cost and relatively high modulus, PVC is used for water and gas pipes, window frames, siding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...-consistent handling of multiphase, multivariant coherent microstructures with interplay among the chemical free energy, interfacial energy, and elastic energy (for example, see review in Ref 36 ). The contributing phase fields to SFTS or inelastic strain in general can be any crystalline defects...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... XRD techniques are equally applicable to other crystalline materials, such as ceramics, geologic materials, and most inorganic chemical compounds. Overview of X-Ray Diffraction Capabilities Determination of crystal structure, lattice parameters, and interplanar spacings in crystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... of these advances on the fracture toughness of steel. Design and Failure Criteria Three major factors contribute to service failure of steel structures: Brittle failure due to the presence of fabrication defects Fatigue crack development Crack development as a result of accidental damage...