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crystal recovery

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... recovery from bauxite, zinc ore and secondary recovery process and purification. The article briefly describes the fabrication process of gallium arsenide crystals. Furthermore, the article gives a short note on world supply and demand of gallium and concludes with research and development on gallium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and Recrystallization As the name implies, dynamic recovery and recrystallization occur during hot working. As metals are worked, defects are generated in the crystal lattice. The most important defects are line defects known as dislocations. As deformation increases, the deformation resistance increases due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... at a higher temperature. Higher temperatures cause deformed metals to approach their undeformed state; the fully annealed state cannot be reached by recovery temperatures, even after long time exposures. When the microstructure of a heavily rolled crystal is revealed using thin-foil specimens parallel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... in the crystal lattice. In the latter case, it is due to precipitation hardening. Recrystallization Although during recovery the energy of the material decreases, it is still relatively high because of the dislocation network of the subboundaries. This stored energy is the driving force...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... working and key processes that control microstructure evolution: dynamic recovery, static recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. Some of the key phenomenological descriptions of plastic flow and microstructure evolution are also summarized. The article concludes with a discussion on the modeling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., stage IV work hardening, and the various classes of single-phase alloys. internal-state variable modeling plastic flow stress-strain behavior polycrystal modeling face-centered cubic metals strain rate diffusion hexagonal metals work hardening IF AN ABSOLUTELY PERFECT SINGLE CRYSTAL...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the relationship of the recovery process to the recrystallization, grain-growth process, and the effects of time and temperature on stress relief. It describes the factors that influence the rate of recrystallization and the conditions required for neocrystallization to occur. The article explains the mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...-hardening part alone for polycrystalline aggregates is not adequately known, because measured stress-strain curves already contain elements of recovery. However, multiple slip is known to start at relatively low strains in polycrystals. For single crystals, this corresponds to stage II hardening, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... elements of recovery. However, multiple slip is known to start at relatively low strains in polycrystals. For single crystals, this corresponds to stage II hardening, which is approximated by a linear behavior. The accuracy of the linearity may, however, be argued in many instances. In fact, the change...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article introduces the mechanism of diffusion and the common types of heat treatments such as annealing and precipitation hardening, which are applicable to most ferrous and nonferrous systems. Three distinct processes occur during annealing: recovery, recrystallization, and grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... influences the occurrence of static or dynamic recrystallization (see Fig. 2 in the article “Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain-Growth Structures” in this Volume). Fig. 10 A three-dimensional sketch of a stacking fault in a face-centered cubic crystal. The fault is a narrow ribbon several atomic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... to static recovery, (3) nucleation behavior, and (4) the flip probability for recrystallization/migration of the recrystallization front. The spatial distribution of cold work can be quantified by deformation models such as crystal-plasticity techniques ( Ref 39 , 43 ) or direct measurements based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... of germanium. Physical, thermal, and electronic properties of germanium Table 1 Physical, thermal, and electronic properties of germanium Property Value Physical Atomic number 32 Atomic weight 72.59 Crystal structure Diamond cubic Density at 25 °C (77 °F), g/cm 3 (lb/in. 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... is implemented for simulations of dynamic recrystallization or in situations where significant static recovery occurs concurrently with static recrystallization The Cellular Automaton Framework The CA framework consists of the size of the CA, the order (dimensionality), the interaction domain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006905
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
...-AM technology. Technological developments to accelerate the recovery of the implant site and reduce damage caused by long-term use are underway. For example, 3D bone data obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) can be used to design an implant shape in computer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... the annealing of worked structures in terms of recovery, recrystallization, and grain coarsening. It summarizes some of the annealing treatments used in conjunction with fabrication by metal working, including preheating, interannealing, self-annealing, stabilization, and stoving. The article concludes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Annealing is an essential treatment in the fabrication of metal parts and semiproducts. This article discusses the processes involved in annealing, namely, recovery, recrystallization, and grain coarsening. It lists the heat treatment conditions of processed aluminum alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... transform and yield the greatest shape change in the direction of the applied stress is stabilized and becomes dominant in the configuration ( Fig. 2c ). This process creates a macroscopic strain, which is recoverable as the crystal structure reverts to austenite during reverse transformation. Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... as “the art and science of procuring and adapting metals to satisfy human wants” ( Ref 1 ). As such, it includes the recovery of metals from ores ( extractive metallurgy ), the formation of metals into various forms ( mechanical metallurgy ), and the understanding of the interaction of the chemical species...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... loading methods, and radiation-driven shock-loading methods. Design parameters for shock recovery fixtures, spallation fixtures, and the flyer-plate experiment, are also discussed. physical properties shock wave loading ductile materials wave propagation explosive-driven shock-loading methods...