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crystal growth

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Gravity has profound influences on most solidification and crystal growth processes. Modification of gravity over practical time scales for the purposes of modifying or controlling solidification proves to be a far more daunting and expensive technological challenge. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and properties can be influenced by processes that occur after adatom condensation but during film growth. The processes that change the film properties include: Mass transport, such as growth of the interfacial region and crystal defect formation and void coalescence Recrystallization and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... iron single crystal, cold rolled 70% in the (111)[ 1 10] orientation. (a) Thin, ribbonlike cells stacked up in the thickness dimension of the as-rolled crystal. (b) Annealed at 550 °C (1020 °F) for 20 min. Increased cell thickness resulting from subgrain growth. Thin-foil TEM specimens prepared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... transformations. The topological properties of the crystals change during the course of grain growth because they lose faces (grain boundaries), edges (triple lines), and vertices (quadruple junctions). One fundamental operation during grain growth that triggers a change of the topology of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Any model that describes the early stage of cavitation must therefore address experimental observations of continuous nucleation, cracklike interface cavities, cavity growth from nanometer-scale sizes, and debonding at particle interfaces and formation of large-faceted cavities. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract The misorientation of a boundary of a growing grain is defined not only by its crystallography but also by the crystallography of the grain into which it is growing. This article focuses on the Monte Carlo Potts model that is typically used to model grain growth, Zener-Smith pinning...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... edge dislocations Stacking faults are two-dimensional defects that are planes where there is an error in the normal sequence of stacking of atom layers. Stacking faults may be formed during the growth of a crystal. They may also result from motion of partial dislocations. Contrary to a full...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article defines crystallographic terms and concepts, including crystal structure, unit cell, structure symbols, lattice, space-group notation, and atom position. It schematically illustrates the atom positions, prototypes, structure symbols, space-group notations, and lattice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., reactions should be avoided, because they deplete the precursor process and may produce deleterious solid particles, or “dust.” Epitaxial deposition is a process that produces single-crystal films with the same crystallographic orientation as the underlying substrate. Epitaxial growth from a CVD process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article illustrates the three techniques for producing glassy metals, namely, liquid phase quenching, atomic or molecular deposition, and external action technique. Devitrification of an amorphous alloy can proceed by several routes, including primary crystallization, eutectoid...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... size and morphology as well as the compositional homogeneity. The final microstructure is also modified by the crystal growth, fluid flow, and structural coarsening processes that are important in the later stages of ingot freezing. In large bulk castings, the solidification temperature corresponding...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reaction sintering and self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis. It also describes several pressure densification methods, including hot isostatic pressing, gas pressure sintering, molten particle deposition, and sol-gel processing. The article concludes with a section on grain growth that discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamental aspects of phase-field microstructure modeling. It describes the evolution of microstructure modeling, including nucleation, growth, and coarsening. The article reviews two approaches used in the modeling nucleation of microstructure: the Langevin...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Silicon single-crystal growth is a technical application of PFS. The component that forms the substrate of a multitude of integrated circuits with minute electronic elements must have reliable properties on a scale smaller than the smallest elements of the circuit. Silicon substrates must also have a high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... growth. The article also describes the various types of solid-state transformations such as isothermal transformation and athermal transformation, resulting from the heat treatment of nonferrous alloys. It provides information on the homogenization of chemical composition within a cast structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... phase equilibria, crystallography, and deformation behavior of titanium and titanium alloys. The article describes the modeling and simulation of recrystallization and grain growth of single-phase beta and single-phase alpha titanium. The deformation- and transformation-texture evolution of two-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... crystal volume, few new grains are formed. In actual practice, extreme grain growth occurs. This is illustrated in Fig. 25 , using the α alloy Ti-5Al-2.5Sn as an example. This alloy consists of the α phase up to 954 °C (1750 °F), where some α transforms to β. By 1015 °C (1860 °F), all the α has...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... graphite phase is a faceted crystal bounded by low index planes. For graphite crystallizing from an iron-carbon melt, the normally observed bounding planes are (0001) and { 10 1 ¯ 0 } , as shown in Fig. 3 . The crystallographic structure of graphite and the possible growth directions, A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Various steps involved in the sample preparation, calibration, and data analysis are then discussed. The article concludes with a section on the applications and interpretation of LEIS in material analysis, including discussion on surface structural analysis, layer-by-layer (Frank-van der Merwe) growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...-centered cubic crystals; the distorted twin-band boundaries; and the regions of shear bands. Limited recrystallization may also occur by the growth of grains nucleated at large and hard inclusion particles ( Fig. 6 ). Fig. 5 Iron that was rolled and partially recrystallized, showing new grains (light...