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cryogenic services

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... services on mechanical properties of the parent metal. cryogenic services mechanical properties weld filler metal welding CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES cause many structural alloys to become brittle, which is an unacceptable condition in most structural applications. Therefore, structures built...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... properties exhibited at cryogenic operating temperatures. These problems can be significantly amplified in the joints produced for components intended for cryogenic service. The article “Welding for Cryogenic Service” discusses the impact of extremely low temperatures on the performance of welded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... to in-service fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking. This article details the residual-stress magnitudes and distributions introduced into aluminum alloys by thermal operations associated with heat treatment. The available technologies by which residual stresses in aluminum alloys can be relieved are also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... with austenitic ductile iron castings, covered in ASTM A571. These alloys, which are used for pressure-containing parts for cryogenic service, have the following composition: Element Composition, wt% TC (a) 2.2–2.7 (b) Si 1.5–2.50 Mn 3.75–4.5 Ni 21.0–24.0 Cr 0.20 max (c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... at the service temperature, as well as aesthetic qualities, such as joint color match after anodizing. Aluminum alloys are compatible with all known cryogenics; base-metal strength and weld strength generally increase at cryogenic temperatures ( Ref 49 and 50 ). The 2 xxx series heat-treatable alloys, as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... in engineering that require the use of materials at very low temperatures. The term cryogenic typically refers to temperatures below 150 K. Service conditions in superconducting magnets that use liquid helium for cooling are in the 1.8 to 10 K range. The mechanical properties of materials are usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... a balance of alloying additions that stabilize the austenite phase from elevated to cryogenic temperatures. Because these alloys are predominantly single phase, they can only be strengthened by solid-solution alloying or by work hardening. The exceptions are the precipitation-strengthened austenitic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Treatment on the Fatigue Life of Chrome Silicon Steel Compression Springs,” Ph.D. thesis, Marquette University , 2001 17. Swiglo A. , “Deep Cryogenic Treatment to Increase Service Life, The Instrumented Factory for Gears, Chicago,” INFAC Industry Briefing , 2000 18. Cryogenic Treated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the fracture toughness behavior of austenitic stainless steels and their welds at ambient, elevated, and cryogenic temperatures. Minimum expected toughness values are provided for use in fracture mechanics evaluations. The article explains the effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... before use by a suitable tempering treatment or by a combination of cryogenic and tempering treatments. There are certain reservations about deep cryogenic treatments between quenching and tempering, because the tetragonality of the fresh martensite formed at very low temperatures can increase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... tests to determine their performance under actual service conditions. The article describes the selection of a material in relation to the manufacturing process and presents the factors that influence materials selection based on costs and related aspects. These factors include metallurgical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... gradual and occurs at a lower temperature, thus allowing the production of a wide range of product forms. The duplex alloys are not suitable for cryogenic service; the austenitic grades are preferred in this application. The duplex grades have good resistance of chloride SCC; however, the various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... vessels, armor plate, and components for marine and cryogenic service. The ballistic analysis of alloy 5083 is given in the section “Weld Properties” of this article. While these alloys normally exhibit good corrosion resistance, care must be taken during processing to avoid formation of continuous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... However, there have been relatively few examples of such failures having occurred in service. One case has been described of mercury-induced cracking of aluminum alloy piping in a natural gas processing plant ( Ref 5 ). As-produced natural gas from the wells was cryogenically treated to remove higher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-induced embrittlement. This phenomenon shares many of these characteristics with other modes of environmentally induced cracking, such as hydrogen embrittlement and stress-corrosion cracking. The discussion covers the occurrence, failure analysis, and service failures of the embrittlement. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... ) where a is crack length and f ( g ) is a function that accounts for crack geometry and structural configuration. This general relationship makes it possible to translate laboratory results into practical design information without the need for extensive service experience or correlations. Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of sand-cast magnesium alloy AZ81A-T4, showing a corrosion-fatigue fracture that occurred in service at the locking-ring channel. Nominal tensile strength was 276 MPa (40 ksi). The fracture extended halfway around the perimeter of the wheel. Many discolored, crescent-shaped fatigue-crack nuclei were found...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
...–1.5 t 1.5–2.5 t 5 (0.187) 1–2 t 2–3 t 6 (0.250) 1–2 t 2.5–3.5 t 10 (0.375) 2–3 t 3–4 t 13 (0.5) 2–3 t 3–4 t Source: Ref 2 Fig. 1 Notch-yield ratio versus yield strength at a temperature of 4K of alloy 7005 and other aluminum alloys used at cryogenic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...) … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … Notes: (1) Service conditions such as immersion in fresh or salt water, exposure to specific chemicals, or a sustained high temperature (higher than 65 °C, or 150 °F) may limit choice of filler metals. Filler alloys 5356, 5183, 5556, and 5654 are not recommended for sustained elevated-temperature...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are used primarily in two areas of application where the unique characteristics of these metals justify their selection: corrosion-resistant service and strength-efficient structures. For these two diverse areas, selection criteria differ markedly. Corrosion applications normally utilize low-strength...