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cryogenic applications

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Published: 01 December 2004
that the lower solution-annealing temperature is used for cryogenic applications (fine grain size), while the higher solution-annealing temperature is used for high-temperature applications (coarse grain size). (a) Original magnification 1000×. (b) Original magnification 100× More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...Abstract Abstract Cryogenic temperatures cause many structural alloys to become brittle, which is an unacceptable condition in most structural applications and is rectified by optimizing the weld composition. Although nonmatching weld compositions are most appropriate, differences between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Abstract Abstract Cold treating of steel can be used to enhance the transformation of austenite to martensite and improve the stress relief of castings and machined parts. Cryogenic treatment of steel is a distinct process that uses extreme cold to modify the performance of materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... properties at elevated temperatures. In addition, AISI type 300-series stainless steels are the most widely used structural alloys for cryogenic applications, because they exhibit high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness properties as well as low thermal expansion and low magnetic permeability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of this is the brittle fracture of ship hulls during WWII that occurred in the cold seas of the North Atlantic ( Ref 1 ). For many applications, low temperature refers to the cryogenic temperatures associated with liquid gases. Gas liquefaction, aerospace applications, and superconducting machinery are examples of areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... welding in this Section details some of the requirements involved during the original construction phase or later in-place repairs of large maritime structures; in addition, reference material is provided to point the reader to other sources of information. Application of materials in cryogenic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... composites, including assembly, welding, isostatic compaction, extrusion, wire drawing, twisting, and final sizing. The article also provides a detailed account of the properties and applications of NbTi superconducting composites. composite fabrication techniques matrix materials niobium-titanium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... primarily for cryogenic applications because of its retention of good toughness and ductility down to cryogenic temperatures (the ELI grade). It is these properties that result in its use on the hydrogen side of the high-pressure fuel turbopump of the Space Shuttle. Ti-5Al-2.5Sn has also been used...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microstructures and freedom from melting imperfections. For cryogenic applications, the interstitial elements oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon are carefully controlled (extra-low interstitial, or ELI) to improve ductility and fracture toughness. For these applications, the basic titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (or Ti-6Al-4V...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the recommended temperatures for normalizing and austenitizing, it provides information on mechanism, cooling media, principal variables, process procedures, and applications of heat treating. In addition, the article gives a short note on the cold and cryogenic treatment of steel. age hardening annealing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... longer life and better emf stability than type K thermocouples at elevated temperatures in air, both in the laboratory and in several industrial applications. Type T Type T thermocouples are used extensively for cryogenic measurements. The positive thermoelement is oxygen-free high conductivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... for applications requiring low magnetic permeability, μ, low temperature (cryogenic) strength, and low-temperature toughness. These applications stem from the development of superconducting technologies used in transportation systems and nuclear fusion research and to meet the need for structural materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... and aerospace structures; more recently, they have been investigated for use in cryogenic applications (for example, liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuel tanks for aerospace vehicles). The major development work began in the 1970s, when aluminum producers accelerated the development of aluminum-lithium alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of key metallurgy, properties, and applications of the non-heat-treatable 5xxx series of aluminum alloys. It also shows the relationships between some of the more commonly used alloys in the 5xxx series. 5xxx series aluminum alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... are given in Tables 2 to 4 . Maximum service temperature is approximately 150 °C (300 °F). Good low-temperature properties make it suitable for use down to −190 °C (−320 °F) in cryogenic applications. Alloy 5254 has excellent resistance to general atmospheric corrosion; it can be used in industrial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... parameters of superconductivity. It discusses the magnetic properties of selected superconductors and types of stabilization, including cryogenic stability, adiabatic stability, and dynamic stability. The article also focuses on alternating current losses in superconductors, including hysteresis loss...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...-12Ni-0.5Ti alloy intended for use at cryogenic temperatures. The series shows the effect on Charpy impact energy at −196 °C (−321 °F), and on fracture-surface characteristics, of the temperature of aging after austenitizing at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 2 h and air cooling.) Fig. 1208 This SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., and to eliminate or enhance and extend flux performance in brazing applications. Many metal oxides, such as aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, and ferrous oxides, are porous and absorb moisture and other chemicals that come in contact with them such as metalworking lubricants and cleaning solvents. These porous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... 2219-T87 aluminum-lithium plate alloy mechanical properties performance characteristics Alloy 2195 (Al-4.0Cu-1.0Li-0.12Zr) ( Table 1 ) was developed by Martin Marietta (now Lockheed Martin) for NASA with improved performance over 2219 ( Fig. 1 ) for use in space and cryogenic tank applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... by similar cryogenic methods from natural gas deposits found in the western United States. A limited number of deposits in the United States and Mexico contain 1 to 8% helium. Because of the low density of helium (0.179 × 10 −3 g/cm 3 , or 6.47 × 10 −6 lb/in. 3 , at 20 °C, or 70 °F), much of the helium...