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crude oil refineries

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article provides useful information on the occurrence of corrosion in crude oil refinery units, namely, crude unit, catalytic and thermal cracking units, hydroprocessing units, amine sweetening units, and sour water units. Types and applications of corrosion inhibitors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... was needed, and with a cost-savings over conventionally used nickel alloys. For nonaqueous conditions involving exposure to high-temperature sulfidic or naphthenic crude oil environments, resistance to corrosion has been mainly related to simply the sum of the chromium and molybdenum concentration ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... A typical crude unit overhead system is representative of the aqueous corrosion experienced in many refinery systems. In a crude unit, the most aggressive corrosion is typically from concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). A substantial portion of the acid comes from ammonium chloride near the dewpoint...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... oil wells $32 million Ref 26 1958 Corrosion in refinery equipment $300 million Ref 27 1959 Damage to refinery equipment through corrosion $400 million Ref 28 1960 Corrosion in Cleveland Sohio refinerycrude units $0.02/barrel (c) Ref 29 1965 Use of inhibitor for crude...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... alloy powders: water atomization, high-pressure water atomization, and gas atomization. The article also provides information on the applications of PM hot isostatic pressing in the oil and gas industry. atomization carbonyl process gas atomization high-pressure water atomization hot isostatic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... when the tank is emptied. Supplemental galvanic CP is frequently used in crude tanks. The use of inhibitors in petroleum facilities is discussed in the articles “Corrosion Inhibitors for Oil and Gas Production” and “Corrosion Inhibitors for Crude Oil Refineries” in Volume 13A. Soil-Side...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... significantly lower corrosion rates ( Ref 36 ). The degree of protection provided by oil films can be quantified only as a function of water cut and velocity. Figure 10 shows data that relate the acid number of the crude to oil wettability, and Fig. 11 snows corrosion rate as a function of produced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and northeastern United States. Oil and gas pipelines that originated in the Texas oil fields and refineries fulfilled a large portion of the energy demand. Their reliability depended on the effectiveness of corrosion-control measures. As the pipeline industry matured, so did the technology of protective coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... resistant to many environments and therefore have found application in oil production, refinery, chemical process, and pulp and paper industries. In 1998, it was estimated that 65% of titanium mill products were used for aerospace and 35% for nonaerospace applications. The total annual consumption price...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...Abstract Abstract This article describes various quenchants, namely, water and inorganic salt solutions, polymers (polyvinyl alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyethyl oxazoline, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and sodium polyacrylates), quench oils, and molten salts, which are used for heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the particular corrosion problems encountered and the corrosion control methods used in petroleum production (i.e., upstream) and the storage and transportation of oil and gas (i.e., midstream) up to the refinery (i.e., downstream). These control methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., numbered 1 to 6. The boiling point, carbon chain length, and viscosity increase as one progresses from number 1 fuel oil to number 6, and the cost typically decreases. Number 6 fuel oil is an extremely viscous residual oil that remains from the refinery process. Bunker fuel oils 5 and 6 have high sulfur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... Quenchant evaluation, classification, selection, and maintenance are reviewed in detail. The article addresses the various reasons for quench oil variability and complications due to aging and contamination. brine cooling flow velocity heat-transfer coefficient oil quenchants polyacrylates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... being in a tank of hot molasses at a sugar refinery, the second being a transformer tank buried in London clay, where the temperature was 60 to 80 °C (140 to 175 °F) for long periods. Systems that are susceptible to the effects of MIC by SRB include oil fields (due to use of contaminated drilling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... residue represents a large potential gallium resource. Much of the residue is contained in tailings ponds near the alumina refineries and would be an easily accessible resource. Zinc ores also represent a significant source of gallium, although not all zinc ores contain gallium. Sphalerite, a zinc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...—Nondestructive Examination ASME B31.3—Process Piping ASME B31.1—Power Piping API 650—Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage API 620—Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks API 530—Calculation of Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries Inspection codes: API...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for “sour service” to avoid integrity problems. Souring of oil and gas reservoirs during prolonged production or of gas storage caverns over time can threaten production infrastructure designed to handle “sweet” sulfide-free crude oil or gas. Consequently, control of in situ souring has attracted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in refineries, cooling-water systems, sprinkler systems, potable water-distribution networks, oilfield water-handling systems, oil pipelines, pulp and paper mills, and so on but not in steam systems where temperatures are high. Fig. 9 Friction factors for flow through test lines under biocide treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... C) that had been in service one year in a refinery vessel. Original magnification: 1.5× Corrosion-generated hydrogen causes blistering of steel in oil-well equipment and in petroleum-storage and refinery equipment. In the refinery, hydrogen-induced blistering has been found most frequently...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., grade C) that had been in service one year in a refinery vessel. 1.5× Corrosion-generated hydrogen causes blistering of steel in oil-well equipment and in petroleum-storage and refinery equipment. In the refinery, hydrogen-induced blistering has been found most frequently in vessels handling sour...