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crude metals

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Electrochemical refining is the purification process for producing commercially pure metals from crude metals. This article describes the principles of electrochemical reactions. It discusses the physical properties of the basic components of electrochemical refining cell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... condensate corrosion. The prime example of a refinery distillation process is the crude unit. pH Conductivity Temperature Metal ion analysis (iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, and so forth) Hydrogen Biological assay Nondestructive inspection Use of coupons Cyclic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... stress, and stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking. The article considers hydrogen attack, corrosion fatigue, and liquid metal embrittlement and the methods of combating them. It explains the causes of velocity-accelerated corrosion and erosion-corrosion. The article summarizes some corrective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... sulfide or metal oxides that may be present on the metal surfaces of the equipment. This type of secondary attack on sulfide-oxide metal films is particularly aggressive at a pH below 5.0. Some types of crude release small quantities of sulfur trioxide when they are heated. Sulfur trioxide is very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) conditions; inhibitor or organic films on metal surface ∞ ∞ >100 Severe anodic and cathodic diffusion limiting Condensing vapor environments, thin liquid films on corroding surface Fig. 5 Effect of gas composition and temperature on corrosion rate of steel. Source: Ref 28 Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... gallium recovery is desired, a bleed steam is separated from the caustic solution before it is recycled to the digestion step. Crude gallium metal, 97.0 to 99.9% pure (3N), is recovered from the bleed solution by two principal processes: the Beja process and the de la Bretèque process. Simplified flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...” and “Corrosion Inhibitors for Crude Oil Refineries” in Volume 13A. Protective coatings are often the first line of defense against corrosion. For carbon steel USTs, a coal tar epoxy or other barrier-type coating material is often used to isolate the metal from the electrolyte. The exterior surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... C.L. , Corrosion Control in Petroleum Refineries Processing Western Canadian Crude Oils , Corrosion , Vol 16 ( No. 6 ), June 1960 , p 275t – 280t 74. Burns F.L. , Moresby J.F. , and Thorpe P.H. , Ed., Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...? What Are the Characteristics and Limitations of 3LPP? What Is Polymer Concrete? What Is Abrasion-Resistant Overcoating? What Is Weight Coat? Cross-head extrusion ( Fig. 29 ) is a process in which a polymer is squeezed onto the steel pipe as the latter is passed through a metal die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... and separate zirconium and hafnium from raw material zircon ore To produce the industrial grades of zirconium, the crude zirconium-hafnium tetrachloride can be sublimated and reduced to the metal with magnesium. Zirconium for nuclear applications must be separated from hafnium. This is accomplished...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Other organic acids 1. Acetic 2. Hydroxyacetic 3. Benzoic Sources of fatty acids used in corrosion inhibitors Table 3 Sources of fatty acids used in corrosion inhibitors Data obtained from literature sources and from Procter & Gamble analyses. Crude tall oil, distilled tall oil...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... tetrachlorides. The zirconium-hafnium tetrachloride is selectively condensed, and the silicon tetrachloride is collected and sold as a by-product. To produce the industrial grades of zirconium, the crude zirconium-hafnium tetrachloride can be sublimated and reduced to the metal with magnesium. Zirconium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., such principles have been applied to selection of steels since the early 1960s in developing rocket motor chambers with improved performance. These concepts have been adopted by the aerospace industry and have since been incorporated into standards for determining fracture toughness of metals and for design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Applications for tantalum equipment Table 1 Applications for tantalum equipment Product Operation Industry Equipment Remarks Acetic acid, crude Recovery from wood distillate Chemical Bayonet heaters, condensers … Aluminum chloride Concentration Chemical Bayonet heaters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... that very large quantities of metal are required in petroleum production, and, until a few years ago, crude oil and gas were relatively low-value products. In addition, insurmountable corrosion problems were not encountered. This situation changed when gas and oil prices increased dramatically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... to a product of petroleum crude. Chemically, these oils are composed of a large number of paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic groups, combined into many distinct molecules. Also present are trace amounts of molecules containing sulfur, oxygen, or nitrogen. On an elemental basis, the composition of petroleum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... are shown as solid lines, and hypothetical distributions associated with nominal stresses S as dashed lines. In (c), the stress distribution that would occur if there were no yielding is shown as a dotted line. Source: Ref 1 (p 344) Fig. 4 Test data for a ductile metal illustrating variation...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... to build mathematical models of the metal cutting process. Many of the theories are extensions of the mechanics presented in the following Section, “Fundamentals of the Machining Process.” These theories try to predict the direction of the shearing process of metal cutting. These models range from crude...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... 50 50 50 50 80 50 30 50 30 80 Note: 1) The content of Ni is calculated by the subtraction method, the subtraction elements are other metals, C and S. 2) Grade a: Maximum content of impurities ≤0.05%; The single impurity of each element ≤0.005%; Grade b Maximum content of impurities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 0.05 2 Phosphoric (crude) 28 81 180 Attacked 60 81 180 Slight attack Phthalic Saturated 12 55 nil 58 135 0.08 3 Picric Saturated 12 55 nil 58 135 nil Propionic 10 12 55 nil 58 135 0.13 5 Pyrogallic 10 12 55 nil 58 135 nil Pyruvic 10...