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crucible wall

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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 6 Equipment for mechanically compacting dry masses (a) in the crucible wall and (b) on the crucible floor. Source: Ref 4 More
Image
Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 8 Diagram of layers of deposits forming on the crucible wall while melting aluminum. Source: Ref 13 More
Image
Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 10 (a) Furnace efficiency dependent on crucible wall thickness. (b) Furnace efficiency dependent on cone diameter More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 24 Equipment for mechanically compacting dry masses (a) in the crucible wall and (b) on the crucible floor More
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Skull melting refers to the use of furnaces with water-cooled crucibles that freeze a solid “skull” of material on the crucible wall. This article describes the basic components, operating pressure, advantages, and applications of vacuum arc and induction skull melting furnaces...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and water cooling systems for induction furnaces. Furnace operators can increase the power supply utilization by the use of mechanical skimmers. The article describes the various lining materials used in induction furnaces, namely, silica, alumina, and magnesia. The crucible wall scrapers, ramming mixes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and in a wide variety of traditional and specialized shapes. There is no direct impingement of the flame on the metal, and the heat loss to the outside is limited by the refractory walls. However, the energy efficiency of the crucible furnace can be low (7 to 19%), with over 60% of the heat loss attributed...
Image
Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 20 System of forces acting on particle with density less that melt density ( γ p < γ ) near the crucible wall of an induction crucible furnace (ICF) More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005895
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of a medium-frequency induction crucible furnace The magnetic flux generated by the coil current runs partly through the melt, although the greatest part flows through the crucible wall between the coil and the melt. The exterior transformer yokes form a magnetic return path and thereby guide the outer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...: Improvement of coil efficiency (increase of electrical conductivity of copper coil due to reduced cooling temperature, optimal copper coil tube profile) Optimal design of cooling coils (optimal profile and optimal material) Reduced crucible wall thickness with equal or even improved crucible life time...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... an extraordinary effect on the metal/slag reaction because the ceramic outer wall reacts with the liquid metal and with the slag. In a VIM furnace, slag would be transported to the crucible wall by the characteristic bath movement. The result is that the slag solidifies at the wall and therefore has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005905
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... in the crucible furnace to be managed so that gas absorption and melting loss of charge materials and alloying substances are minimized. Particularly when melting chips, thin-walled sheet metal, and foil wastes, the burn-off rate of 1 to 2% is quite advantageous compared to fuel-fired melting furnaces, some...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is solidifying in the crucible, it pulls away from the crucible wall as it cools. This reduces heat conduction to the crucible wall. To maintain the highest possible heat removal from the solidifying ingot, a high-heat-capacity gas such as helium is introduced into the gap that is formed by the ingot shrinkage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of specialized cupolas such as cokeless cupola and plasma-fired cupola. Melting in iron foundries is a major application of induction furnaces. The article describes the operations of two induction furnaces: the channel induction furnace and the induction crucible furnace. It explains the teapot principle...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and the shape and depth of the molten pool. A major feature of ESR solidification is that a “skin” of oxide is incorporated between the ingot surface and the crucible wall. Similar to VAR, the distance between the side of the electrode and the crucible wall is the annulus. The depth of the slag pool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... with the molten boric silicate formed on the grain surfaces, produces a sinter layer in contact with the melt that is sufficiently dense to ensure that the melt cannot penetrate into the refractory wall, despite its low viscosity. Figure 5 depicts the wall structure of a refractory crucible derived from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... on a refractory or metal base causes the bottom of the crucible to be colder due to heat loss into the base. Creating a crucible stand or holder that supports the crucible by its middle exterior walls using projected appendages spaced radially and inwardly allows the crucible to be heated uniformly without...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005904
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... to approximately ΔC = 0.1%. If stronger carburizing is required, the bath level should reach the top of the coil or extend a maximum of 100 mm (4.0 in.) above it. As shown by the diagram in Fig. 6 , a bath meniscus then forms. The carbon thus is transported by the melt flowing to the crucible wall in ring form...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and removal of excessive aluminum oxide buildup that occurs on the walls of melting furnaces, especially along the melt line. This type of flux helps keep crucible and furnace walls free of oxide buildup above and below the melt line. They are usually applied with a lance or flux gun or may simply...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for easy removal of any detached scale that might form on the outer surface of the crucible during the melting operation. The furnace chamber has a base that slopes toward a cleanout door. A progressive thinning of the crucible walls can occur, which may tend to be localized in fuel-fired furnaces because...