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crucible melting

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., furnace types, charging practices of metal melting methods, namely induction melting, cupola melting, arc melting, crucible melting, reaction melting, and vacuum melting, and the refractories and charging practice of reverberatory furnaces. Molten metal treatment of steels and aluminum also is discussed...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Skull melting refers to the use of furnaces with water-cooled crucibles that freeze a solid “skull” of material on the crucible wall. This article describes the basic components, operating pressure, advantages, and applications of vacuum arc and induction skull melting furnaces...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and atomizing of reactive metals, titanium, and superalloys. Plasma torches, however, are the only nonconsumable heat sources for melting under high inert gas pressures in skull crucibles. High pressure is an essential requirement for preventing the selective evaporation of alloying elements that are...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... refinement process nitrogen hydrogen degassing MELTING UNDER VACUUM in an induction-heated crucible is a tried and tested process in the production of liquid metal. It has its origins in the middle of the 19th century, but the actual technical breakthrough occurred in the second half of the 20th century...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Product quality, size, and quantity Contamination of the product is avoided by melting in a controlled vacuum and in water-cooled copper crucibles ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Schematic of the electron beam melting process The energy efficiency of electron beam processing exceeds that of competing...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... furnaces tilting movable furnaces CRUCIBLES, in the form of well-fired clay pots, were present at the dawn of the metals industry, some 6000 years ago, and gave early metal workers the ability to melt metal in a durable container that could then be used to pour the molten material into a mold. Few...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., deoxidation, grain refining, and filtration. The article provides a discussion on these melt treatments for group I to III alloys. It describes the three categories of furnaces for melting copper casting alloys: crucible furnaces, open-flame furnaces, and induction furnaces. The article explains the important...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... required. Table 3 Typical manual addition rates for powder and granular fluxes Application for: Addition based on: Powder flux Granular flux Crucibles and ladles Percentage of total metal charged or melted 0.25–0.50% 0.20% Reverberatory Pounds of flux per square foot of molten...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... been updated and revised from J.P. Laughlin, Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys, Casting , Vol 15, Metals Handbook , ASM International, 1988, p 836–839. Vacuum arc skull melting furnaces use consumable electrodes melting into water-cooled copper crucibles. When sufficient metal has been melted, the...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... coil is rammed with grain refractory. The furnace chamber may be a refractory crucible or a rammed and sintered lining. General practice is to use ganister rammed around a steel shell that melts down with the first heat, leaving a sintered lining. Basic linings are often preferred; a rammed lining of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Dross, which is the oxide-rich surface that forms on melts due to exposure to air, is a term that is usually applied to nonferrous melts, specifically the lighter alloys such as aluminum or magnesium. This article describes dross formation, economic implications of dross, in-plant...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... around a steel shell that melts down with the first heat, leaving a sintered lining. Basic linings are often preferred; a rammed lining of magnesia grain or a clay-bonded magnesia crucible can be used. The process consists of charging the furnace with steel scrap and then passing a high-frequency...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... electrode is heated to the melting point, drops of liquid metal that fall from the electrode face are collected in a lower crucible and rapidly solidified. However, ESR and VAR have very different melting methods, which have implications regarding the magnitude of cooling rates obtained and the nature of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... crucible materials and refractory linings and the modification of process equipment design. Molten magnesium does not attack iron in the same way as molten aluminum. Magnesium can therefore be melted and held at temperature in crucibles fabricated from ferrous materials. It is common practice, therefore...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... foundry. For example, titanium reacts violently with silica and has a fairly high solubility for most other refractories (including oxides, carbides, and nitrides). As a result, titanium alloys cannot be melted in refractory crucibles, and they dissolve or react with all refractory molds. METAL...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... molds Tundishes, which are intermediate holding vessels that have the ability to regulate molten-metal flow using slide gates, sliding nozzles, or a stopper Holding furnaces or transport crucibles that maintain a melt (or superheat) over a period of time Molten-metal transfer pumps Teeming...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Metal matrix composites (MMCs) can be synthesized by vapor phase, liquid phase, or solid phase processes. This article emphasizes the liquid-phase processing where solid reinforcements are incorporated in the molten metal or alloy melt that is allowed to solidify to form a composite...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for melting. Large installations generally had a central melting facility, usually gas fired and accommodating a cast iron pot. Hot metal was pumped or siphoned from the furnace into the transport crucible or ladle. The transport ladle was suspended from an overhead conveyor and filled and emptied by...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... cooling systems for the induction furnaces. Furnace operators can increase the power supply utilization by the use of mechanical skimmers. The article describes the various lining materials used in induction furnaces, namely, silica, alumina, and magnesia. The crucible wall scrapers, ramming mixes, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... remains constant, while the material flows from the batch filling region through the furnace to the delivery area. The melt can be contained in a leakproof crucible heated externally or in a basin of refractory blocks heated internally. Pot furnaces use single-piece refractory pots or metal crucibles...