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cross-linking polymers

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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 10 Schematic of a cross-linked polymer More
Image
Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 4 Comparison of the amount (dose) of particles per year that results from reported size and wear rate data ( Fig. 2 and 3 ). This graphically demonstrates that the smaller size of the particles associated with highly cross-linked polymer particles es reduction in the amount of wear debris More
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Published: 01 June 2012
, Ref 9 ; ceramic-polymer, Ref 10 ; metal-cross-linked polymer, Ref 11 , Ref 12 , Ref 13 , Ref 14 ; metal-metal, Ref 15 ; and ceramic-ceramic, Ref 16 More
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Published: 01 June 2012
10 ; metal-cross-linked polymer, Ref 11 , Ref 12 , Ref 13 , Ref 14 ; metal-metal, Ref 15 ; and ceramic-ceramic, Ref 16 More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 2 Thermoset elastomers are long-chain polymers connected by cross links represented by circled Xs. More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 4 Elastomers may be cured in one or two stages. The stages proceed from top to bottom. (a) Polymer chains are not connected. (b) Heat drives the chemistry of cure. Many cross links are formed. Some polymer chains are well connected. Elastomeric properties are created. (c) Higher temperature More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... The surface of a photosensitive liquid thermoset polymer is exposed to a prescribed wavelength of “light,” which chemically initiates the cross-linking reaction. This results in the formation of a solid in the liquid where the material is exposed to the light. Wavelengths often lie in the ultraviolet range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Waals, hydrogen, and so on) though cross-linking via primary bonds is possible. The polymer polyethylene, for example, forms when the double bond between carbon atoms in the ethylene molecule (C 2 H 4 ) is replaced by a single bond to each of the adjacent carbon atoms, resulting in a long chain molecule...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of bearing surfaces of total hip arthroplasties (THAs). UHMWPE, ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene. Sources: Metal-polymer, Ref 9 ; ceramic-polymer, Ref 10 ; metal-cross-linked polymer, Ref 11 , Ref 12 , Ref 13 , Ref 14 ; metal-metal, Ref 15 ; and ceramic-ceramic, Ref 16 Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... such as stability, adhesion, polymer branching, or sites for cross linking with external cross-linking agents. The functional monomers are typically higher in cost than the building-block monomers and also add cost to the resin composition. Acrylic polymers often contain some nonacrylic co-monomers, used because...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... between thermoplastics and thermosets. These materials can be re-formed somewhat, but not completely, with the application of heat. Their properties are midway between the two extremes because their bonding is midway between. These polymers have long, individual molecules that are lightly cross linked...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... polymers bearing either hydroxyl or carboxyl groups. However, they do not have any ethylenic (–C=C–) double-bond saturation in their backbone chain. They cross link by reacting further by a condensation reaction with other resins that copolymerize with the hydroxyl and/or carboxyl pendant groups...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Acrylic coatings can be formulated as thermoplastic solvent-deposited coatings, cross- linked thermoset coatings, and water-based emulsion coatings. Acrylic resins that are used for protective coatings consist of polymers and copolymers of the esters of methacrylic and acrylic acid. The chemical structure...
Image
Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 15 Schematic representation of the structure of a phenol formaldehyde. (a) Two phenol rings join with a formaldehyde molecule to form a linear chain polymer and molecular by-product. (b) Excess formaldehyde results in the formation of a network, thermosetting polymer due to cross-linking. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... polymer chains, the polymer is cross-linked. London Dispersion Forces London dispersion forces are the weakest of the secondary bonds with energies of 4 to 8 kJ/mol and an intermolecular distance of 3 to 5 Å ( Ref 21 ). They are the only secondary interactions in linear, nonpolar hydrocarbons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of this article is the use of elastomers as seals. Also see the article “Environmental Performance of Rubber Linings” in this Volume. Thermoplastic materials are long-chain polymers that are not connected by cross links ( Fig. 1 ). Very few elastomers are the thermoplastic type. They acquire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... desired. The designing of a polymer is sometimes referred to as molecular engineering. The polymer chain may be cross linked with other chains if its individual components remain reactive after the polymer is formed. A cross-linked polymer is called a thermoset, whereas a polymer that is not cross linked...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of certain blends. Fig. 2 (a) Static and dynamic friction against stainless steel of 70 wt% poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) + 30 % cross-linked ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (XL-UHMWPE) as a function of carbon black (CB) concentration. (b) Volume resistivity change of the neat polymer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... themselves into an orderly structure. In general, simple polymers (with little or no side branching) crystallize very easily. Crystallization is inhibited in heavily cross-linked (thermoset) polymers and in polymers containing bulky side groups. There are three categories of polymers: thermoplastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... °C, or 500 °F). The use of bisphenol F resins cross linked with low-viscosity aliphatic, aromatic, and cycloaliphatic amines and low-weight polyamide co-polymers enables the formulation of low-volatile organic compound (VOC) coatings of 90- to 100%-solids coatings well below the 250 g/L (2.1 lb...