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cross-linked thermosetting resins

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... resins, thermoplastic resins, and cross-linked thermosetting resins. The autooxidative cross-linked resins include alkyd resins and epoxy esters. The article examines the two types of coatings based on thermoplastic resins: those deposited by evaporation of a solvent, commonly called lacquers, and those...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... linking occurs. Completion of the cure reaction ultimately results in a fully cured, cross-linked network. Thermosets may be cured by heat, ultraviolet radiation, and, in some cases, electron beam radiation. Epoxy resins are the best-known and most studied of the thermosets. Other useful thermosets...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... still protective Used as moisture-resistant coatings in immersion and underground service. Widely used as pipeline exterior and interior coatings below grade. Pitch emulsions used as pavement sealers. Relatively inexpensive Cross-linked thermosetting resins Bisphenol-A amine-cured epoxies...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in a thermoset network of oxygen-linked triazine rings (cyanurates) and bisphenol esters/ethers. Cured cyanate resins are classified as polycyanurates, a type of polyarylate or wholly aromatic polyester that is cross-linked. The cyclotrimerization curing process is illustrated in Fig. 5 . Fig. 5 Curing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... a high coefficient of thermal expansion, so reinforcement is critical. The resins generally are inhibited by contact with oxygen during cure. This acts to slow surface cure, and the top (air-exposed) surface does not cross link completely, significantly reducing chemical resistance. For thick linings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-like processing. They tend to be more brittle than epoxies, but can be formulated to achieve various combinations of cross-link density and elongation that provide matrix resins with balanced properties. Bismaleimides are being used in applications that require temperature performance between...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of the cured resin. On the other hand, the epoxies with the highest T g s are cross linked from both resins and curing agents that are relatively inflexible and bulky. Because thermosets are covalently cross linked, secondary bonding has only a small influence upon the T g . However, the cross-link density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... to make them less brittle; they also lower the T g of the cured resin. On the other hand, the epoxies with the highest T g are cross-linked from both resins and curing agents that are relatively inflexible and bulky. Because thermosets are covalently cross-linked, secondary bonding has only a small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... There is a relatively large number of epoxy coating systems, because there are a number of epoxy resins of different molecular weights and compositions, as well as a number of cross-linking agents that co-polymerize with those epoxy resins. Each is discussed in some detail, although materials suppliers always...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... matrix. Materials that are commonly used to toughen fiber-reinforced composites are core-shell particles with a shell that is compatible and may also be reactive with the matrix, and a cross-linked rubber or thermoplastic core that does not dissolve. The size of the core-shell particles is usually...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to decompose, which activates the monomer and polyester to form cross-linked thermosetting polymers. Catalysts are only a small part of an SMC resin formulation. Generally, the addition of 0.3 to 1.5 wt% of catalytic agents will adequately promote the cross-linking reaction. Organic peroxides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... F Fig. 8 Possible isomers of bisphenol F Bisphenol F can further cross link, generating tri-, tetra-, and higher phenol oligomers called novolacs ( Fig. 9 ). Fig. 9 Novolacs, phenol oligomers of bisphenol F The novolac resin is brittle at room temperature. It can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Impurities such as dust and free particulates can also nucleate crystals. Figure 4 shows the effect of fiber nucleation on the development of spherulites in a lightly cross-linked, high-temperature thermoplastic-matrix carbon fiber composite. The chemistry of this matrix does not allow for a high degree...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... artifacts. Details of the fracture may also be difficult to observe if the sample is not mounted. When mounting the sample using a casting resin, it is necessary to add a dye to distinguish it from the matrix resin. Figure 2 shows a cross section of an impacted composite laminate that was mounted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... cycle, including initial T g of the uncured resin, the temperature of minimum viscosity, the onset of gelation, the cross-linking reaction, the cure completion, and the modulus of the fully cured material. The sharp increase in the shear modulus with cure in Fig. 5 shows the high sensitivity of DMA...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... adhesives modified with nitrile rubber. Thermosetting Resins Thermosetting resins are high-molecular-weight polymers that react further to form a rigid, cross-linked molecular structure. After this setting, or curing, of the resin, the permanently hard, virtually infusible solid that results cannot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... performance of the part during and after fabrication. The subsequent sections may be used as a practical introduction to formulary components and epoxy resin selection. Base Resins The term “epoxy resin” describes a broad class of thermosetting polymers in which the primary cross linking occurs through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... such as stability, adhesion, polymer branching, or sites for cross linking with external cross-linking agents. The functional monomers are typically higher in cost than the building-block monomers and also add cost to the resin composition. Acrylic polymers often contain some nonacrylic co-monomers, used because...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... are identification of data sets. Source: Ref 22 Thermoset polyesters are widely used in transportation, construction, electrical, and consumer products. In addition, the versatility of polyesters allows them to be used in a broad variety of processes. Through appropriate selection of the cross-linking...