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creep testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the behavior of steel wires did not follow the same relationship. These initial experiments by Trouton and Phillips were performed at room temperature. In 1910, Andrade ( Ref 3 ) furthered the study of creep and even studied the effect of temperature, performing a series of tests at 162 °C (323 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... this article is on the various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. Other specialized testing, such as wear testing, dynamic (high-strain-rate) testing, elevated-temperature creep/stress rupture, residual stress, fracture mechanics, and fatigue testing, are potentially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and triangulate AE stress-wave source in response to mechanical or thermal stress. Corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, weld cracking, creep and fatigue cracking Sensitive to noise and vibration; identifies location of discontinuity rather than type of discontinuity Allows the whole volume of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../reverse thrust/ground idle excursions as (varying) elevated-temperature low-cycle fatigue events. One may then view the cruise portion of the flight as elevated-temperature high-cycle fatigue events (fatigue creep). Each of these excursions is affected in some way by the ambient temperature (time of day...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fracture (not all failures are fractures), the failure analyst must identify the origin of the fracture and the mechanism(s) of crack propagation. In general, the three general modes or types of metal fracture include failures from overload, fatigue, and creep. These three modes of fracture are briefly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... economy are well documented. For example, the importance of investigating failures was vividly illustrated in the pioneering efforts of the Wright Brothers in developing self-propelled flight. In fact, while Wilbur was traveling in France in 1908, Orville was conducting flight tests for the U.S. Army...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fatigue, creep, or environmentally-assisted cracking. Corrosion and wear are another form of progressive material alteration or removal that can lead to failure or obsolescence. This article primarily covers the topic of abrasive wear failures, covering the general classification of wear. It also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... check or destructive testing, chemical analysis Loading direction may show failure was secondary Short-term, high-temperature, high-stress rupture has ductile appearance (see creep) Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... taken from earlier mechanical test specimens eliminated high-cycle fatigue (HCF) as the damage mechanism, because HCF cracking exhibits transgranular fracture features. The fracture features appeared to be consistent with both creep and low-cycle fatigue (LCF) damage mechanisms. However, a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stainless steel. Marble’s etch Creep is caused by a combination of stress and temperature that exceeds the long-term strength limits of the material. The most severe form of creep is identified by voids forming at the grain boundaries. These voids appear in a zigzag pattern at an advanced stage. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... secondary mechanisms, such as galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and pitting corrosion; creep; and fatigue. Impingement by solid particles can contribute to erosion-corrosion, or it can accelerate corrosion in the various gaseous and molten environments. Primary mechanisms include: Oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electromechanical testing equipment, continuous extensometer measurements, and a relatively low testing frequency. Further details on testing are given in the article “Fatigue, Creep Fatigue, and Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Testing” in Mechanical Testing and Evaluation , Volume 8 of the ASM Handbook , 2000...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... relatively deep and narrow. A thin, circular shaft in torsion may buckle into a helical configuration when a critical moment is exceeded. Creep or distortion from other causes may change the dimensions of a structure so that it becomes susceptible to buckling. Further details can be found in references such...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... thus the preferential region for congregation and segregation of impurities. Typically, the grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials are stronger than individual grains in a properly processed material below its creep-regime temperature. The grain boundaries are disruptions between the crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... heat treated cast alloy for gas turbine components showing different sizes of γ′ particles. Electropolished and electroetched. Courtesy of J.F. Radavich, Micro-Met Laboratories This is also the case when components suffering from creep damage or creep failure are examined and in which there may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the damage sites ( Ref 7 , 8 ). Examples of such work are given in the following to illustrate the value of light microscopy. Figure18(a) shows a micrograph of an unusual tensile test fracture that was obtained during the evaluation of a carbon steel (0.25% C, 0.63% Mn, 0.27% Si) casting. Instead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... areas containing numerous fine cracks. The 125 cm rupture was due to creep rupture. The other cracking, however, was determined to be due to zinc-induced embrittlement. Zinc was detected by EDS on the faces of the 8 cm long crack, and zinc was found in crack branches off of the main crack. The three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of these fractography concepts. At homologous temperatures low enough that creep deformation does not contribute to strain prior to or accompanying crack propagation ( T H < ~0.4 T M ), the mechanism of permanent deformation in metallic materials is by slip or deformation...