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creep forming

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... linked to oxidation and therefore must be considered as part of oxidation-damage kinetics. The nucleation and growth of cavities at the grain boundaries due to creep result in almost purely intergranular fracture. When creep deformation is localized near the crack tip, damage in the form of grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... accurately determine differences between the temperature dependence and the stress dependence of creep behavior. In general, the form of creep strain (in the form of primary, secondary, and tertiary stages) under constant-stress conditions is the same as those for constant load. However, the duration spent...
Book Chapter

By Sammy Tin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... constitutive description of the strain-rate-dependent behavior of engineering alloys must take into account the intrinsic causes of damage accumulation in the form of cavitation, dislocation evolution, and grain-boundary sliding. Moreover, because creep occurs at elevated temperatures, seldom does the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... formed Waspaloy casing with internal and external contours The tensile behavior and creep properties of the roll formed VT25 are compared with conventionally processed VT25 ( Ref 21 ) and Ti-6242 in Fig. 18 , 19 . Samples were also taken from the longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) directions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... arc melting INTERMETALLIC ALLOYS offer great potential for structural applications requiring outstanding high-temperature properties such as strength, stiffness, creep resistance, and oxidation resistance. For this reason, efforts to develop these materials have increased significantly since the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... specific transformation products that are formed in different areas of a part. To model subsequent stress-relief operations, creep models (e.g., Bailey-Norton, Soderburg) are incorporated into the code. Additional information on process simulation methods for bulk forming is contained in the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... complex forming operations, through the use of the finite element method, are also presented. axial deformation body centered-cubic sheets deformation texture finite element method forming plastic deformation rolled face-centered-cubic zirconium METALS are polycrystalline aggregates, that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ceramic-forming processes usually start with a powder which is then compacted into a porous shape, achieving maximum particle packing density with a high degree of uniformity. This article compares and contrasts several forming processes, including mechanical consolidation, dry...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... degradation is observed in tests that reflect slow, rapid, or cyclic strain rates, such as creep, impact, and fatigue testing. In all cases, the degree of property loss will depend on the parameters that control the characteristics of all microstructures. These metallurgical phase controls are the nature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... titanium engine disks. These disks are required to have excellent creep and high stress-rupture properties in the rim and high fatigue strength in the bore region. A FEM-based code, ALPID ( Ref 3 ), was developed under this program. Thermoviscoplastic FEM analyses ( Ref 4 ) were also performed to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... fracture usually occurs. At very high temperatures a rupture type of fracture occurs, in which the material recrystallizes rapidly and pulls down to a point with nearly 100% reduction in area. A transgranular creep-type of failure occurs at temperatures less than those causing rupture. Intragranular voids...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... information on the various drive systems and the auxiliary equipment. It describes the selection of die materials and lubricants for sheet metal forming and provides information on the lubrication mechanisms and selection with a list of lubricant types for forming of specific sheet materials of ferrous or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... reworking by controlling distortion (size and shape changes) Improvement of product performance and lifetime (fatigue, creep, corrosion, wear resistance) by controlling the microstructure and residual stress distributions Energy and time saving by computer-aided design of new heat treatment strategies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-spindle, creeping-spindle, alternate-blow, and die-closing types. All these machines are equipped with dies that open and close rapidly to provide the impact action that shapes the workpiece. The five principal machine concepts for swaging are shown in Fig. 4 . Fig. 4 Principal machine concepts for...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-viscoplastic constitutive equation was developed for the austenite phase of steel ( Ref 36 ) by fitting constant strain-rate tensile tests ( Ref 37 , 38 ) and constant-load creep tests ( Ref 39 ) to the form required in Eq 10 , 11 , 12 , Eq 13 . (Eq 16) ε ˙ eq = f % C 〈 σ eq...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... their disappearance through shrinkage of the smallest meshes and participation in glide (largest links for which l >α′ μ b /σ). In its most refined form ( Ref 29 ), the model offers a satisfactory description of the primary and secondary stages of creep in austenitic stainless steels. The steady...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... for layups, filament winding, and tape wrapping. Resin polymer is popular for its high-temperature characteristics (315 °C, or 600 °F, for long durations, and 480 °C, or 900 °F, for short durations), low-temperature properties at −195 °C (−320 °F) for long durations, and low creep and deflection under...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fatigue, creep, or environmentally-assisted cracking. Corrosion and wear are another form of progressive material alteration or removal that can lead to failure or obsolescence. This article primarily covers the topic of abrasive wear failures, covering the general classification of wear. It also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... final fast fracture and about 11.7 mm (0.46 in.) from the notch, in Fig. 618 . The elongated dimples confirm that final fracture was by shear. Fatigue striations ceased to form when this final stage of fracture began. 6500× Effect of strain rate in creep crack propagation on fracture mode in an...