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crack-tip parameters

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... ∫ 0 t h C t d t where C t is a crack-tip parameter related to the rate of expansion of the creep-zone size under the conditions of small-scale creep and is estimated by Eq 4 for a cracked body of thickness B , width W , and crack size a ( Ref 1 , 5 ): (Eq 4) C t...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. This article discusses the basic considerations and provides information on probe selection, gain setting, and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... a few milliseconds. The final phase of the cold chamber casting shot process is the intensification phase. The aluminum alloy will shrink approximately 7% as it solidifies, and as the casting shrinks, there will be tears, cracks, and voids in the casting. To help overcome this shrinkage, which...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Fundamental to the machining process, is the metal-cutting operation, which involves extensive plastic deformation of the work piece ahead of the tool tip, high temperatures, and severe frictional conditions at the interfaces of the tool, chip, and work piece. This article explains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... v Rolling velocity v rel Relative velocity α s Area fraction of the gaps formed from the through-thickness cracks at the interface and filled with fresh metal γ Pressure viscosity coefficient δ Temperature viscosity coefficient δ ox Scale thickness δ oxt Scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., whether a distortion control or cracking problem ( Ref 3 ). Distortion and cracking are complicated processes. This article provides an overview of the effects of material- and process-related parameters on various types of failure. Fig. 1 Summary of the many causes of dimensional changes in a heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... roots of many fatigue striations. The range of stress intensity (Δ K ) at the crack tip was 76.9 MPa m (70 ksi in . ). The spacing of striations on a fatigue fracture is commonly used to evaluate the stress conditions causing a fatigue failure. However, the striations that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... brittleness or toughness, and quenchant required Various quenchants have different cooling characteristics and cooling rates. Different materials and part geometry have different quenching rate requirements in order to produce a martensitic microstructure that is free of cracking and has reduced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... surface cracks or excessive cropping to remove end splits) be held to a minimum, while avoiding the formation of internal cavities (pores). Severe cracking is ordinarily the result of high surface tensile stresses introduced when hot working is conducted either above or below the temperature range of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... performance for die pressing ferrite magnets, welding tips, and advanced ceramic components. In the traditional ceramics area, TZP cutters are used to punch holes in green wash basins, and zirconia fettling tools are used to trim clay decorations. Tableware decorating machines use zirconia lining and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion. Corrosion studies have been conducted on magnesium MMCs reinforced with B MF , graphite fibers, SiC MF , and Al 2 O 3 fibers. The stress-corrosion cracking behavior of an Al 2 O 3 /Mg MMC has also been investigated. Titanium MMCs are being developed for aerospace, commercial, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... dissolves most forms of particulate iron and reduces ferric (Fe 3+ ) ions within the solution to ferrous (Fe 2+ ) ions. The partially evacuated ampoule containing an acidic, buffered solution of 1,10-phenanthroline is inserted into the test solution, and its tip is snapped allowing both solutions to mix and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... operations in design. The article describes the factors that control casting tolerances and provides specific tips for designing castings with uniform wall thickness and unequal sections, designing thin sections, designing for economical coring, designing for functional packaging, and core design principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of stress corrosion. This can even occur under common atmospheric exposure at relatively low threshold stresses. An effective measure to reduce or eliminate stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and to provide optimum properties is to provide seamless (flashless) parting lines. Applications of seamless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... alloy 718 and other superalloys are sometimes used for dummy blocks, where use of these alloys often results in extremely long tool life. Mandrels are generally made of either H11 or H13, regardless of the material being extruded. Mandrel tips and inserts for the extrusion of aluminum are commonly...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describe sliding wear other than the other than abrasive, fretting, fatigue, and polishing wear. Repeated stressing of a surface by sliding contact can cause cracks to nucleate and grow, producing the flake-like delaminations and pitting that are associated with fatigue wear. Fretting wear is a special...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... hot ( T / T M ≥ 0.6) working temperatures, processes such as wedge cracking (the opening of voids and their propagation at triple junctions, or the intersection of three grain boundaries) and cavitation (the formation of voids or cavities around second-phase particles, particularly at grain...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... general terms by: (Eq 16) d a / d N = f ( Δ K ,   R ) The stress-intensity parameter range characterizes cyclic stresses and strains ahead of the crack tip and uniquely characterizes crack growth rate through a relationship such as Eq 15 . Because the zone that...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... propagating crack is below a certain value and a triaxial or plane strain stress state exists at the crack tip, linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) can be applied to describe the relationship between crack length ( a ) and the applied stress (σ) by stress intensity factor K : K = σ a ⋅ F...