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crack-like imperfection

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the underlying fundamentals, applications, the relevance and necessity of performing proper stress analysis in conducting a failure analysis. It presents an introduction to the stress analysis of bodies containing crack-like imperfections and the topic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and could therefore be a defect should be determined in many situations by analysis. In a cylindrical section under axial load, for example, imperfections along the centerline or at the surface are the most likely locations of crack initiation. In the absence of stress raisers at the surface, crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... should enhance the safety of the structure, because all failure modes are considered and the flaw acceptance levels are specifically calculated rather than being based on workmanship criteria. Planar imperfections are sharp crack-like features that can substantially reduce the fatigue strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... direction Mechanism of cracking and the path of fracture Load conditions (monotonic or cyclic) Environment Geometric constraints that influenced crack initiation and/or crack propagation Fabrication imperfections that influenced crack initiation and/or crack propagation In the latter...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... center of radius of curvature Curvature may reverse on cylindrical sections as crack propagates (see Fig. 40 ) Ratchet marks More likely in cyclic loading Indicates initiation site(s) (see Fig. 40 , 41 ) Adjacent surface and or fracture surface discoloration May indicate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... skills and tools are required for such identification, but the analyst also needs a mental organizational framework that helps evaluate the significance of observations. Like the basic process of the scientific method, failure analysis is an iterative process of narrowing down the possible explanations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microscopy, 20 to 10,000× (fracture surface) Microvoids (dimples) elongated in direction of loading Single crack with no branching Surface slip band emergence Cleavage or intergranular fracture Origin area may contain an imperfection or stress concentrator. Progressive zone: worn...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... they can extend, and they can form by either a hot or cold cracking mechanism. Occurrence of weld metal cracking in steel is likely if combinations of the following conditions are present: Incompatible composition and microstructure (high hardenability or carbon equivalent) High restraint...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concepts. bending brittle fracture compression failure deformation ductile crack nucleation ductile fracture ductility fractography manufacturing imperfections metals microvoid coalescence notched specimen plastic flow root cause failure analysis single-crystal cleavage models specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article describes concepts and tools that can be used by the failure analyst to understand and address deformation, cracking, or fracture after a stress-related failure has occurred. Issues related to the determination and use of stress are detailed. Stress is defined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fracture mechanisms and if there is an apparent crack origin. Surfaces of the component adjacent to the fracture surface should be examined for secondary cracks, pits, or imperfections. Photographs should be taken to record the condition of the pertinent parts before physical evidence is destroyed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... dye or fluorescent particles is drawn into surface-breaking cracks and voids by capillary action. A developer is applied to draw the penetrant out of the flaw, giving a visible indication. Used on metal, glass, and ceramics to locate surface-connected discontinuities. Relatively easy to use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... properties. Vast improvements in mechanical properties can often be achieved by combining two or more elements to form an alloy. Alloys or metals with significant levels of impurities (unintentional alloys) are usually crystalline like nominally pure metals, but it is sometimes possible to prepare them...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... Such casting imperfections as shrinks, cracks, blows, or dross usually indicate the need for casting process adjustment. The first visual inspection operation on the production casting is usually performed immediately after shakeout or knockout of the casting, ensuring that major visible imperfections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of radius of curvature • Curvature may reverse on cylindrical sections as crack propagates Ratchet marks • More likely in cyclic loading • Indicates initiation site(s) Adjacent surface and or fracture surface discoloration • May indicate corrosive environment • May indicate elevated temperature...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for in-place inspection of shaft-like parts in railroad shops, aircraft-maintenance shops, and shops for automobile, truck, and tractor repair. Transverse cracks in spindles and shafts are easily detected using such coils. Most coils used for magnetizing are short, especially those wound on fixed frames...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to part use and function have not developed during processing. Advantages The magnetic-particle method is a sensitive means to locate small, shallow surface cracks in ferromagnetic materials. Cracks large enough to be seen by the naked eye can produce an indication, but very wide cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... be from any source, including air, dissolved oxygen in water, or other oxidizing media. When this protective film is violated or fails to form, active corrosion is likely to occur. Some fabrication processes can impede the reformation of the passive layer, and, to ensure that it is formed, stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and selecting a cutting method and fixturing setup. Failure analysis of fractures often benefits from cross sections that contain crack profiles. If the crack is relatively clean and free from corrosion product, normal failure analysis protocol would usually delay the metallography until scanning electron...