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crack-like imperfection

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the underlying fundamentals, applications, the relevance and necessity of performing proper stress analysis in conducting a failure analysis. It presents an introduction to the stress analysis of bodies containing crack-like imperfections and the topic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... along the centerline or at the surface are the most likely locations of crack initiation. In the absence of stress raisers at the surface, crack initiation from manufacturing imperfections is most likely along the centerline of an unnotched bar under tensile loading. In this case, if cracking initiates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... severe embrittlement in steels, especially those with hardnesses above approximately 40 HRC. High-strength, highly stressed parts can crack and fracture as a result of hydrogen embrittlement. Failure by hydrogen embrittlement is even more likely to occur if high residual tensile stresses are present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... imperfections. Fig. 1 Defects and discontinuities in welded joints Planar Imperfections Planar imperfections are sharp crack-like features that can substantially reduce the fatigue strength of a welded joint or cause initiation of brittle fractures. Examples include hydrogen cracks, lamellar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... upstream. (A similar rule of thumb involves initiation of a crack that propagated through a wall; that is, crack initiation will have occurred on the side of the wall where the crack is longest.) Material Imperfections and Welding Flaws Two mechanisms that deserve special consideration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... significant and can lead to ductile tearing on a plane of high shear stress rather than on the plane of maximum normal stress. Fig. 15 Centerline cracking in a plate containing a crack-like defect. Constraint in the thickness direction created by the crack-like defect causes a transverse stress (σ z...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cyclic loading Propagation from center of radius of curvature Curvature may reverse on cylindrical sections as crack propagates (see Fig. 40 ) Ratchet marks More likely in cyclic loading Indicates initiation site(s) (see Fig. 40 , 41 ) Adjacent surface and or fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... they usually interrelate with one or more other failure mechanisms. The failure analyst then has to establish the answer to the question: “Did the failure occur because weld or material imperfections were present, or was one of the other mechanisms the primary mechanism?” Example 2: Cracking in Gas Turbine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... failure), and when that machine or structure with an unrepaired crack is placed into service, the preexisting crack will likely have an important and negative effect on the performance of the welded connection when service loads are applied. This article discusses the interaction of manufacturing-related...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of weld metal cracking in steel is likely if combinations of the following conditions are present: Incompatible composition and microstructure (high hardenability or carbon equivalent) High restraint High hydrogen content in the weld zone High tensile stress (residual or applied) High...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concepts. bending brittle fracture compression failure deformation ductile crack nucleation ductile fracture ductility fractography manufacturing imperfections metals microvoid coalescence notched specimen plastic flow root cause failure analysis single-crystal cleavage models specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... roughness due to liquation; and excessive filler metal, which could be stress-concentration or corrosion sites. Liquid red dye and fluorescent dye penetrant inspection can also be used for the detection of imperfections, such as cracks that are open to the surface in braze joints of both magnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or more fracture mechanisms and if there is an apparent crack origin. Surfaces of the component adjacent to the fracture surface should be examined for secondary cracks, pits, or imperfections. Photographs should be taken to record the condition of the pertinent parts before physical evidence is destroyed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... introduces the stress analysis of bodies containing cracklike imperfections and the topic of fracture mechanics. The fracture mechanics approach is based on the analysis of the crack tip stress and strain field. The initial approach proposed by George Irwin, the father of fracture mechanics, used the stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... marks or nicks, and quench cracks resulting from heat treating operations. Frequently, stress concentrators are introduced during hot or cold forming of shafts; these include surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, pits and forging laps, and internal imperfections, such as bursts. Internal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... not been deformed by molding or pouring errors or by mistakes in cleaning. Most large surface defects can be observed at this stage. Initial sample castings from new pattern equipment should be carefully inspected for obvious defects. Such casting imperfections as shrinks, cracks, blows, or dross usually...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Table 1 presents some of the common defects in each category. In general, defects that can serve as stress raisers or crack promoters are the most serious. These include preexisting cracks, internal voids, and nonmetallic inclusions. Imperfections That Can Occur in Iron and Steel Castings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... marks, conchoidal marks) • Indicates cyclic loading • Propagation from center of radius of curvature • Curvature may reverse on cylindrical sections as crack propagates Ratchet marks • More likely in cyclic loading • Indicates initiation site(s) Adjacent surface and or fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... were evident within the cracks. The source of the unexpected bending was not determined. Fracture could be transgranular (and most likely is), but the fracture path is heavily influenced by cleavage cracking in the graphite flakes. Decohesive Rupture Decohesive rupture is a fracture mechanism...