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crack nucleation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article focuses on characterizing the fracture-surface appearance at the microscale and contains some discussion on both crack nucleation and propagation mechanisms that cause the fracture appearance. It begins with a discussion on microscale models and mechanisms for deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., impact fracture, fatigue fracture surface, reversed torsional fatigue fracture, transgranular cleavage fracture, rotating bending fatigue, tension-overload fracture, torsion-overload fracture, slip band crack, crack growth and crack initiation, crack nucleation, microstructure, hydrogen embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... monitoring via an inspection scheme. This article begins with a discussion on the stages of the fatigue damage process. It describes hierarchical multistage fatigue modeling and several key points regarding the physics of crack nucleation and microstructurally small crack propagation in the HCF regime. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... candy fracture, cleavage fracture, brittle fracture, high-cycle fatigue fracture, fatigue striations, hydrogen-embrittlement failure, creep crack propagation, fatigue crack nucleation, intergranular creep fracture, torsional overload fracture, stress-corrosion cracking, and grain-boundary damage of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... ), which further extends the applications to include cracks and voids ( Ref 47 ), free surfaces ( Ref 48 ), elasticity-induced rafting ( Ref 49 , 50 ), and so on. The approach is an analog to the treatments for Brownian motion in statistical mechanics, which mimics the thermal perturbation forces from...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... For instance, an inclusion or second-phase particle precipitated in a solid matrix that has nucleated and grown by diffusion of solutes will effectively be in perfect atomic contact with the matrix and therefore incapable of creating a crack. Either the inclusion, the matrix, or both will yield...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... stresses produce microcracking of the film. The cracks tend to meet orthogonally and form polygon “islands” or “chips” such as are seen in dried “mudflats” ( Ref 65 ). Because the interface is constrained, the mudflat islands will tend to curl at the edges. If the compressive stresses are highly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... wetting and essentially defect-free interfaces, whereas different sites may contain unsealed nanovoids that can grow in size. Based on the experimental observations, initial void growth thus appears to occur along particle-matrix interfaces in a manner similar to crack propagation, with only slight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... shuffle transitions. The article reviews the application of the Ginzburg-Landau approach to rigorous solutions for issues in the structure of a martensitic nucleus based on the martensitic nucleation theory. The three basic behavior modes of martensitic growth, such as elastic, elastic/plastic, and fully...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... on the polished surface of test specimens. The magnitude of the coefficient of the third term (1100 MPa) shows the importance of silicon particle shape ( AR ) on casting quality and gives credence to theoretical studies that suggest that cracking of silicon particles controls tensile elongation and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... formation of methane bubbles at the grain boundaries. In addition, dimpled IG fracture can occur by void nucleation at precipitates in the grain boundaries. Dimpled IG fracture is aided by impurities that adsorb strongly on the grain-boundary surface. It can also appear in the stress-relief cracking of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of ASTM/ASME alloy steels and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the solidification cracking, creep failure, brittle...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... strength, a surface flaw is created that develops only in the region of locally high stress. The resultant surface crack concentrates the applied stress and can nucleate the catastrophic fracture event. Once the catastrophic crack has been nucleated, it will begin to spread from the origin under...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... further in terms of crack nucleation, crack growth rates, and threshold stress-intensity measurements. In order to determine the susceptibility of alloys to SCC, several types of testing are available. If the objective of testing is to predict the service behavior or to screen alloys for service in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be defined and limited. The conventional design methods are supplemented by the fracture mechanics methods, in which cracklike flaws in the structure are anticipated and included in the design. These methods have all contributed to a better understanding of fatigue crack nucleation in regions of high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Intergranular creep fracture depends on the nucleation, growth, and subsequent linking of voids on grain boundaries to form two types of cavities: wedge-type (w-type) cavities or isolated, rounded-type (r-type) cavities. Wedge-type cavities are usually associated with cracking at grain-boundary triple points...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fracture of metals, including laps, seams, cold shuts, cracks, inclusions, porosity, fatigue, and stress corrosion cracking. failure analysis fractography macroscopic examination microscopic examination stress corrosion cracking surface defects visual examination EXAMINATION of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... slip bands intersect free surfaces (e.g., see Fig. 2 in “ Fatigue Failure in Metals ” in Fatigue and Fracture , Volume 19 of the ASM Handbook , 1996). Continued surface roughening and damage accumulation ultimately results in crack nucleation at the surface. Cyclic damage can also accumulate at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... surface grains oriented favorably for slip. For this sample, after 73 days of exposure, a crack was observed that had nucleated in a heavily slipped area. Bundy ( Ref 282 ) has summarized the results of his investigations described previously and listed conditions under which representative alloys from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... linked to oxidation and therefore must be considered as part of oxidation-damage kinetics. The nucleation and growth of cavities at the grain boundaries due to creep result in almost purely intergranular fracture. When creep deformation is localized near the crack tip, damage in the form of grain...