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cost estimation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract This article provides an insight into the cost estimation of painting projects for both contractors and others. The cost estimating methods include benchmarking, unit price estimating, developed pricing, market pricing, and critical path scheduling. The first step in developing an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article analyzes the estimates of the cost of corrosion, made in various countries at various times. The data are extrapolated to a 2004 base and then projected to the global economy. The chronological order of the countries are the United States of America, the United Kingdom...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., agitation motors, and much more. If this is the case, those numbers should be used instead of some of the “educated” estimates presented here. With good record keeping, the data can then be used to determine the number of hours over which the costs will be distributed. In the method described herein, a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... outside dimension of 1% or less, but the wall thickness can vary from 0 to more than 6% and still be in tolerance. Because about half the cost of producing plastic extrusions is in the cost of the raw materials, it is important to determine which dimensions can be varied without losing the integrity of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... measuring such clusters. Although the use of LiMCA in the foundry industry is limited by its high cost, its ability to be unaffected by the presence of TiB 2 inclusions in the melt should offset its cost disadvantage in the long run. The study ( Ref 7 ) states that LiMCA is the only technique capable of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... painted. In the painted condition, weathering steels contribute synergistically to extending the service life of the protective coating and therefore reduce maintenance costs. The primary limitations involve frequent and long-term contact with water caused by the inadvertent creation of pockets and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forging and a reinforcing bead, tapered webs (see Fig. 5 and 11 ), and flat-back forging and machining (see Fig. 12 ). Review Webs for Machining and Economy. Compare the costs of obtaining minimum web thickness by forging and by finish machining. Various types of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... continued cadmium use is becoming cost-prohibitive: The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) released the “Occupational Exposure to Cadmium; Final Rules” in 1992. OSHA estimates that compliance with these rules will cost domestic industry $159,616,000/year ( Ref 4...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Near-net-shape processing is one example of the more general case of eliminating process steps in order to reduce cost. Cost estimation deals with a specific process sequence and assumes that the desired product attributes are achievable. Fig. 6 Concurrent engineering matrix for aluminum alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... by estimating the cost of each. The bulk processing of structural intermetallic alloys has seen tremendous advances since the 1980s. Although very few parts of these materials are being commercially manufactured and sold at present, production-size quantities of Fe 3 Al and Ni 3 Al have been...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... schedule factors is necessary to ensure that all pertinent and important information is supplied to the metalcasting facility. When necessary information is not provided, this slows the procurement and results in an inaccurate cost estimate or in a cast component that does not fully meet requirements...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The choice of whether a component is best manufactured as welded, assembled, fabricated, forged, machined, or cast is based on the component geometry, production costs, and requirements in application. The article addresses these issues and provides a framework for analyzing all manners of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... protective coatings, a short service life of a low-cost, inferior material makes ultimate coating and maintenance costs far higher than if a more expensive durable coating had been used originally. Other factors must also be considered in arriving at an overall cost estimate, including: spreading rate, the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Thermocouple devices are the most widely used devices for measurement of temperature in the metals industry. Favorable characteristics of these devices include good accuracy, suitability over a wide temperature range, fast thermal response, ruggedness, high reliability, low cost, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discusses the concept of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a quantitative accounting of the environmental and economic costs of using a given material and the energy required to make, distribute, operate, and eventually dispose of the host product and its constituent materials. An important but often overlooked...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., composition of the forging alloy, and factors associated with die filling and producibility, on vertical and horizontal corners and fillets. It reviews the design of corners and fillets to satisfy the requirements of metal flow in forging and cost considerations arising from usage and removal of metal by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of cut grain (end grain) enhanced resistance to stress corrosion. Thus, the draft inherent in the design of this component was utilized to produce a superior part at lower cost. The 7075 aluminum alloy stabilizer support fitting shown in Fig. 10(b) was estimated to weigh 8.2 kg (18 lb) when...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Thin sections save weight and thus contribute to a more favorable strength-to-weight ratio. By requiring a smaller volume of metal, thin walls may also lower casting costs, particularly when an expensive alloy is being poured. This article discusses the design problems in thin-wall...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... two cost divisions can be further subdivided into direct and indirect costs. In those cases where the influence of specific costs is great, it is possible to make a rough estimate of the savings without a complete cost analysis. In any event, the economic justification of cutting and grinding fluids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., explosion, toxicity, and asphyxiation. The article reviews the fundamentals of principal gases and vapors. It describes how the evaluation of the atmospheric requirements of heat treating furnaces is influenced by factors such as cost of operation and capital investment. atmosphere furnaces...