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corrosion inhibitors

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... used extensively in seawater applications, while magnesium anodes have been used less extensively. The slight advantage of low-alloy steels over carbon steels usually is lost in the final economic analysis of corrosion prevention. Inhibitors are sometimes used in seawater cooling equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface. The adsorbed inhibitor then acts to retard the cathodic and/or anodic electrochemical processes of the corrosion. When inhibitor concentrations are much below recommended levels, the adsorbed layer of inhibitor on the steel surface may be incomplete, which can result in preferential attack on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... concludes with a description on the corrosion control of MMCs using protective coatings and inhibitors. aluminum chemical degradation copper corrosion control depleted uranium metal matrix composites galvanic corrosion lead magnesium metal matrix composites processing-induced corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... inhibitors. The corrosion of iron in the atmosphere proceeds by the formation of hydrated oxides. The formation of oxyhydroxides is the principal anodic process of rusting: Fe + 2 H 2 O → FeOOH + 3 H + + 3 e − ( anodic ) The group of ferric oxyhydroxides includes α...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... Another way is to change the surface of the steel through the use of corrosion inhibitors in the concrete. Using more corrosion-resistant reinforcement is an alternative. The reinforcement materials can be modified for improved corrosion resistance or replaced. Examples include dual-phase steel, which has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... greatly reduced, and corrosion will be retarded. A corrosion inhibitor is a substance that, when added in small amounts to a corrosive, reduces its corrosivity. Corrosion inhibitors function by interfering with either the anodic or cathodic reactions, or both. Many of these inhibitors are organic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... corrosion inhibitors that may be added to an operating system to suppress corrosion. Differences in potential created between a metal surface under a biofilm (or other surface deposits) and adjacent bare metal can result in the formation of galvanic corrosion cells ( Ref 8 ). Liu et al. ( Ref 75...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 1952 Corrosion in sour oil wells in West  Texas, New Mexico, and Kansas Ranges between $270 and $2000/well per year Ref 20 1952 Corrosion in tanker industry $18 million Ref 21 1952 Potential savings of Shell Oil Company through the use of corrosion inhibitors $110,000 Ref 22...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... unless proper inhibitors are added. Measures should be taken to control the galvanic corrosion. Dry chlorine, iodine, bromine, and fluorine cause little or no corrosion of magnesium at room or slightly elevated temperature. Even when it contains 0.02% H 2 O, dry bromine causes no more attack at its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... and adequately insulated from more noble metals ( Ref 1 ). Coatings, control of impurities, alloying additions, inhibitors, and careful attention to design details (to address galvanic corrosion issues) are the primary ways in which the corrosion of magnesium and magnesium alloys are addressed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... currents can be a source of increased galvanic degradation. The use of corrosion inhibitors is effective in some cases. Elimination of cathodic depolarizers (deaeration of water by thermomechanical means plus oxygen scavengers such as sodium sulfite or hydrazine) is very effective in some aqueous...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... property other than corrosion resistance and if either the amount of corrosion does not cause excessive maintenance expense or the effects of corrosion can be lessened, such as by use of coatings or inhibitors. P, poor: corrosion rates are high, and service is generally unsatisfactory. Corrosive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nature corrode titanium unless they contain inhibitors. Strong oxidizers, including anhydrous red fuming nitric acid and 90% H 2 O 2 , also cause attack. Ionizable fluoride compounds, such as NaF and HF, activate the surface and can cause rapid corrosion; dry chlorine gas is especially harmful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... stress relief, which can usually be applied without significantly decreasing strength; or by altering the environment, such as by changing the predominant chemical species present or introducing a corrosion inhibitor. Residual and assembly stresses can be eliminated by recrystallization annealing after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article is a pictorial guide to forms of corrosion that draws attention to common pitfalls or situations that have caused premature corrosion, sometimes with expensive consequences. The examples used are not exhaustive; they highlight the necessity to fully examine materials...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., such as seawater, the corrosion component becomes the controlling factor; thus, resistance may be greater for the more corrosion-resistant alloys even though they are lower in strength. Corrosion inhibitors and cathodic protection have been used to minimize erosion-corrosion, impingement, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a form of corrosion and produces wastage in that the stress-corrosion cracks penetrate the cross-sectional thickness of a component over time and deteriorate its mechanical strength. Although there are factors common among the different forms of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion-resistant alloys even though they are lower in strength. Corrosion inhibitors and cathodic protection have been used to minimize erosion-corrosion, impingement, and cavitation on aluminum alloys ( Ref 87 ). Most aluminum alloys have excellent resistance to atmospheric corrosion (often called...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion allowance in normal passive environments. General corrosion becomes a concern in reducing acid environments, particularly as acid concentration and temperature increase. In strong and/or hot reducing acids (in the absence of inhibitors), the oxide film of titanium can deteriorate and dissolve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article provides a description of the classification, industrial applications, microstructures, physical, chemical, corrosion, and mechanical properties of zirconium and its alloys. It discusses the formation of oxide films and the effects of water, temperature, and pH on...