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corrosion film solubility

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Film radiography requires the development of the exposed film so that the latent image becomes visible for viewing. It describes the general characteristics of film, including speed, gradient, and graininess, and the factors affecting film selection and exposure time. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... rate of steel is negligible. In oxygen-saturated water, the initial corrosion rate is high but rapidly falls off over a period of days as an iron oxide film is formed that acts as a barrier to oxygen diffusion ( Ref 2 ). Additionally, water-soluble salts are hygroscopic and, at a critical humidity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... coatings, as in the cathodic protection of polymer-coated pipelines. The atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel is understood by considering the electrochemical process that occurs in aqueous media. If carbon steel is placed in a completely dry atmosphere in ambient temperature, oxide film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... spray systems consist of a gun, aeration feed system, and power pack. The unit electrically charges powder as it is sprayed onto a grounded part. Parts may be electrostatically coated hot or cold. However, producing the thick coating films needed for underground/underwater corrosion protection requires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion products ( Ref 20 ). The extent of protection depends on the compactness, adherence, and solubility of these films. Solders were based on the tin-lead system. Industrial solder alloys contain a combination of materials ranging from 100% Pb to 100% Sn, as demanded by the application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract Tantalum is one of the most versatile corrosion-resistant metals known. The outstanding corrosion resistance and inertness of tantalum are attributed to a very thin, impervious, protective oxide film that forms on exposure of the metal to slightly anodic or oxidizing conditions. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... extended to pH=−1.03.) The pH has some effect on the solubility of the oxide film on zirconium, but the effect is not dramatic. Practically, the corrosion resistance of zirconium has little dependence on pH over a wide range ( Ref 18 ). Zirconium dioxide is virtually insoluble in neutral water. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... into titanium surfaces, should be avoided. After laboratory or in situ test exposure, titanium samples can be coated with tenacious, insoluble corrosion product (TiO 2 ) films or scales, which require removal before final weighing. Because titanium oxides are not soluble in common mineral acids, very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article describes some of the mechanical/ electrochemical phenomena related to the in vivo degradation of metals used for biomedical applications. It discusses the properties and failure of these materials as they relate to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion fatigue (CF...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract This article reviews the steps involved in presurface-preparation inspection: substrate replacement; removal of weld spatter, rounding of sharp edges, and grinding of slivers/laminations; and removal of rust scale, grease, oil, and chemical (soluble salt) contamination. It focuses on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article addresses the biologic aspects of implant debris both locally and systemically. It discusses the particulate debris, such as stainless steel, cobalt alloy, and titanium alloy, and soluble debris obtained due to wear from all orthopedic implants. Implant debris is known to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., thermal or mechanical cycling, corrosion, interfacial degradation, burnishing of soft surfaces, shot peening, and overcoating (“topcoat”) In order for the film to have reproducible properties, each of these factors must be reproducible. Atomistic film growth occurs as a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... strong thermodynamic driving force for corrosion, and its surface film does not present a very protective kinetic barrier to corrosion. Despite these shortcomings, the interest in using magnesium alloys for a variety of applications is still high because of its weight advantage. Consumer uses of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... preventing the formation of a protective film leads to corrosion. When magnesium is immersed in a small volume of stagnant water, the corrosion rate is negligible. When the water is constantly replenished so that the solubility limit of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) is never reached, the corrosion rate may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.../metal misfit strain with halide incorporation is another theory accounting for the rupture of protective oxide films on metals ( Ref 66 ). The improved corrosion resistance associated with the addition of 18% Cr to crystalline iron is attributed, in part, to a change in the protective oxide structure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... those that contain large concentrations of soluble salts. Because of the presence of salts, such soils have relatively high electrical conductivities (or low electrical resistivities). The least-corrosive soils have low concentrations of soluble salts and high resistivities. Resistivity measurements can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... measurements, solution analyses, and electron microscopy ( Ref 14 ). Beryllium exhibited passive behavior in some solutions and pitting corrosion in other solutions. The passive film was identified as microcrystalline BeO. It is well known that surface defects, such as twins, microcracks, and pits, in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... approximately 138 MPa (20 ksi) and at temperatures of 1200 to 1400 °C (2190 to 2550 °F), has no detrimental or beneficial effect on the cemented carbide except for the removal of the last vestiges of porosity. The corrosion of cemented carbides is based on the solubility of the key ingredients used in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... The next layer is free tin that is perhaps 0.3 μm (0.012 mil) thick, with a passivation film of approximately 0.002 μm (0.00008 mil) and an oil film also approximately 0.002 μm (0.00008 mil) thick. All five layers affect corrosion behavior. The preceding sections point out the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... pure niobium. Nb-50Ta and Nb-40Ta showed a constant or increasing corrosion rate as time increased. The corrosion rate of niobium will increase with hydrochloric acid concentration and diminish initially with time, due to the formation of superficial oxide films ( Ref 14 ). In niobium-tantalum alloys...