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copper precipitation-strengthened steel

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005962
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Abstract Copper steels are precipitation-strengthened steels that are designed to have a unique combination of physical and mechanical properties. This article provides an overview of copper precipitate-strengthened steels and their applications, and discusses appropriate ASTM International...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... provide a significant boost in the strength of the room-temperature steel. This strengthening process is called precipitation or dispersion strengthening. The finely dispersed particles are vanadium carbonitrides, or V(CN), and are an example of nanotechnology. The other benefit that vanadium can...
Image
Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 11 Variation in microhardness as a function of aging time and aging temperature due to precipitation strengthening in an experimental copper steel. The microhardness is increasing during nucleation as the number density of the precipitates increases. The microhardness is relatively More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... systems (aluminum, copper, magnesium, nickel, and titanium alloys) that can be significantly strengthened by precipitation hardening. Basically, the PH method is a three-step process, even though the temperature and time cycles for precipitation hardening depend on alloy composition and on whether...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...-solution strengthening. Copper is usually added to alloy steels for its contribution to atmospheric-corrosion resistance and at higher levels for precipitation hardening. The effect of copper on hardenability is similar to that of nickel, and in hardenability calculations it has been suggested...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of particle-reinforced aluminum-base composites against a steel counterface. aluminum alloys aluminum-base composites cast alloys composites friction grain refinement metal-matrix composites microstructure precipitation hardening strengthening wear work hardening wrought aluminum alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005885
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...), recrystallization inhibition (solute drag) Niobium Temperature sensitive Dispersion strengthening, austenite grain-boundary pinning, recrystallization inhibition Titanium Low Austenite grain-boundary pinning Residuals (Copper) in Steels With the increased use of electric furnace steel, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper systems Aluminum-lithium alloys with age hardening from precipitation of δ′ (Al 3 Li) Cast and wrought aluminum alloys commonly are classified either as heat treatable (precipitation-hardenable) alloys or as non-heat-treatable alloys (strengthened by solid-solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., 17 Zn C75400 Nickel silver, 65-15 bal Cu, 15 Ni, 20 Zn C77000 Nickel silver, 55-18 bal Cu, 18 Ni, 27 Zn The temper designations for solid-solution-strengthened and precipitation-hardened copper and copper alloys are reviewed in the sections “Solid-Solution Strengthening and Cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... aluminum alloys include: Aluminum-copper systems, with strengthening from coherent and transition precipitates prior to the formation of the equilibrium intermetallic CuAl 2 (2 xxx and 2 xx.x alloy series) Al-Cu-Mg systems, in which magnesium intensifies precipitation hardening with CuAl 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Widmanstätten structures (see the article “Metallography: An Introduction” in this Volume), while micron-scale precipitate structures occur in moderately to rapidly cooled medium-carbon steel. Precipitation also provides the basis of the strengthening mechanism in age-hardening alloys, where small-scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... as his significant discovery that aluminum and titanium led to precipitation hardening of nickel-base alloys ( Ref 7 ). This mechanism continues to provide the basis for material strengthening in today's superalloys The work of William A. Mudge on a precipitation hardening nickel-copper alloy (K-Monel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... and reduce hardness in a manner similar to that used for alloy steels. Copper Alloys The metallurgy of copper alloys is suited for using, singly or in combination, the various common strengthening mechanisms: solid solution and work hardening, as well as dispersed particle and precipitation hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... conductivities in metals are reduced by them. However, metallic strengths are increased by impurities. This solid solution hardening is used to strengthen a number of metals. Adding zinc to copper, as in brasses, is a technologically important example. Small impurity atoms do not substitute for the host...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., copper, tungsten, and molybdenum powders from their respective oxides are well-established commercial processes. Detailed process descriptions for these oxide-reduced powders can be found in the articles “Production of Powder Metallurgy Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels” , “Production of Copper Powders...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... bronze cast silicon bronze copper alloys heat treatment strengthening wrought aluminum bronze wrought beryllium bronze wrought silicon bronze BRONZES GENERALLY ARE USED to describe many different copper-base alloys in which the major alloying addition is neither zinc nor nickel. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... casting alloys) Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7 xxx wrought and 7 xx.x casting alloys) In the case of alloys having copper as the principal alloying ingredient and no magnesium, strengthening by precipitation can be greatly increased by adding small fractional percentages of tin, cadmium, or indium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of copper (and early stages of precipitation, Guinier-Preston-Bagaryatskii zones) have been identified as the significant contributor to strength ( Ref 2 ) Die-cast magnesium alloys, where solid-solution strengthening is one of the key design considerations in their development ( Ref 3 ) Cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...-hardenable high-temperature materials is the secondary-carbide-strengthened materials. These alloys have an austenitic structure like the above groups, but do not contain sufficient alloy content to precipitate γ′ phase. Instead, they contain generous additions of carbide-forming elements such as chromium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... The remaining manganese remains in solution and is precipitated during the ingot preheat as Al 12 (Mn,Fe)Si and Al 6 (Mn,Fe) dispersoids. These dispersoids strengthen the material and control recrystallized grain size. In alloys containing copper, manganese precipitates as Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 dispersoid particles...