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copper drossing

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article reviews the melt processing and casting of non-ferrous alloys, such as nickel alloys, titanium alloys, and lead alloys. It describes the lead refining steps, namely, copper drossing, softening, desilvering, zinc removal, bismuth removal, and final refining. casting...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Gas porosity is a major factor in the quality and reliability of castings. The major cause of gas porosity in castings is the evolution of dissolved gases from melting and dross or slag containing gas porosity. Degassing is the process of removing these gases. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., drossing fluxes, cleaning fluxes, and furnace wall cleaner fluxes. The article reviews the basic considerations in proper flux selection and fluxing practices. It explains the basic principles of degassing and discusses the degassing of wrought aluminum alloys. The article describes filtration in wrought...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... deoxidizer goes into solid solution. A more thorough discussion of gas solubility is available in Ref 20 (see also the article “Gases in Metals” in this Volume). A number of the copper alloys are susceptible to dross formation, and the normal precautions in pouring and gating are absolutely necessary...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Dross, which is the oxide-rich surface that forms on melts due to exposure to air, is a term that is usually applied to nonferrous melts, specifically the lighter alloys such as aluminum or magnesium. This article describes dross formation and ways to reduce it, the economic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... It reviews the classification of solid fluxes depending on their use and function at the foundry operation. These include cover fluxes, drossing fluxes, cleaning fluxes, and furnace wall cleaner fluxes. The article also examines the operational practices and applications of the flux injection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... sorting, such as hand sorting, air classification, magnetic separation, eddy-current separation, heavy-media separation, and sensor-based sorting. The article also describes thermal processing, refining and casting, and dross processing of aluminum. It provides information on reverberatory and electric...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article focuses on the recycling of metals including iron and steel, stainless steel, superalloys, nickel, aluminum, copper, precious metals, lead, magnesium, tin, titanium, and zinc. It provides information on the identification and sorting of scrap metals and discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract Many nonferrous metals, including aluminum, nickel, copper, and others, are among the few materials that do not degrade or lose their chemical or physical properties in the recycling process. As a result, these metals can be recycled an infinite number of times. This article focuses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., but there is a “window” between these two extremes in which dross-free cuts can usually be achieved. The dross-free range is greater on stainless steel and aluminum than it is on carbon steel and copper alloys. If dross-free cuts cannot be achieved, then a minimum amount of low-speed dross is more desirable, because...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... fell out of favor because the fumes associated with breakdown of salts or vaporizing of PCl 5 were unpleasant if not unhealthy. Another additive researched and reported in the 1960s ( Ref 2 ) and continuing in use even today (2008) is the alloy of phosphorus and copper. Commonly called phos-copper...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... be remelted separately and added back in small quantities or, better still, sold outright. If this is not practical, the scrap should be fed back moderately. The electrodeposits will separate and float to the top of the bath, where they can be skimmed off. Agitation will increase copper, nickel, and chromium...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... with the furnace gases, it forms slag/dross. The melt loss rate is 3 to 5% in aluminum gas reverberatory operations ( Table 1 ). Improvements in burner technology, fuel/air ratio control, insulating refractories, and temperature control have contributed to a slow but steady improvement in the efficiency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... air, 5 to 20 bar Lower cost than pure N 2 but increases dross Copper alloys Low- to high-pressure O 2 , 1.5 to 12 bar More efficient than air Brass Low- to high-pressure O 2 or N 2 , up to 20 bar High-speed cutting of thin workpieces Titanium alloys High-pressure Ar, 3 to 10 bar...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., if any, metallurgical or industrial processes have a more distinguished history than the crucible melting of metals. Crucibles or earthenware smelting pots that were used to refine copper from King Solomon's mines can still be found in that area of ancient Israel. Some pots had capacities of up to 0.40 m...
Book Chapter

By Paul T. Vianco
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... to the standard T-wave cause a smooth surface at the exit region to limit bridges, icicles, and the formation of excessive dross. The dual-wave configuration provides separate turbulent and smooth (laminar) waves to effect the desired solder joint qualities. Note that these modifications generally require...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... dross-free cuts can usually be achieved. The dross-free range is greater on stainless steel and aluminum than it is on carbon steel and copper alloys. If dross-free cuts cannot be achieved, then a minimum amount of low-speed dross is more desirable, because it is more easily removed than the high-speed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the argon bubble through the composite ( Fig. 3 ). Restart the mixing impeller and increase the argon flow rate through the wand to the flow rate of the degassing curve shown in Fig. 4 . During the degassing the dross should be skimmed and discarded. When dross formation ceases, remove the wand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... is not recommended, because the iron consumes more magnesium and produces excessive magnesium sulfide slag, which is difficult to remove thoroughly and may lead to dross defects in castings. To produce ductile iron with the best combination of strength, high ductility, and toughness, raw materials must be chosen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... furnace bullion (usually in the smelter). The resulting copper-rich drosses are re-treated in a reverberatory furnace to produce a high-copper matte, which is further treated elsewhere to recover the copper. In the next step, antimony, tin, and arsenic are removed, usually by the Harris process...