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cooling towers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... condensation. (b) Schematic of closed-loop water cooling system in (a) Fig. 4 Schematic of induction cooling system with air-cooled tower with a water-to-water trim cooler. Courtesy of Dry Coolers Inc. Fig. 5 Air-cooled tower that uses an atomized mist assist option. Courtesy of Dry Coolers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the mechanisms of microbially induced or influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic materials as an introduction to the recognition, management, and prevention of microbiological corrosion failures in piping, tanks, heat exchangers, and cooling towers. It discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the mechanisms of microbiologically influenced corrosion as a basis for discussion on the diagnosis, management, and prevention of biological corrosion failures in piping, tanks, heat exchangers, and cooling towers. It begins with an overview of the scope...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... are increasingly playing more significant roles in service water system reliability. Most service water systems use raw water for cooling purposes. Raw water is defined as untreated water such as that provided by a lake or river. It can also refer to the same water used in a cooling tower...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... may need to be replaced to get complete cleaning. This cleaning is preferred because the dehumidifier cleaner is user friendly and nontoxic. The full heat load removal capacity of the heat exchangers will be restored. Cooling towers are outdoor machines that are designed to dissipate heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... (stainless steel, optimized profile) 0.8 5.0 Crucible design Wall thickness –20 mm Cone diameter +30 mm 1.5 0.5 9.0 3.0 Sum 3.3 20.0 Perphery Cooling circuit pumps (pressure controlled) 0.3 1.8 Cooling tower fans (power controlled) 0.2 1.2 Exhaust system (power controlled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... and the quenchant, and the size and heat-removal capacity of the heat exchanger. Cooling towers, chillers, and city or well water systems can be used for the line water. (Chillers are expensive to operate.) Due to cost, in most locations cooling towers are used when substantial line cooling water is needed. Cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... content of the water remains essentially the same. Water is usually drawn from such sources as rivers, lakes, and wells. Open recirculating systems continuously reuse the water that passes through the heat- transfer equipment. Circulated water can be drawn from spray ponds or cooling tower basins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... with an exhaust hood; the free platform is visible with the other. The emergency run-off pits can be seen in front of the furnaces, these being designed in accordance with VDG notice P 40 ( Ref 23 ). A passageway 1.5 m (4.9 ft) wide is located behind the furnace box; the furnace cooling water monitoring devices...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in an aluminum brass condenser tube cooled by seawater Fig. 4 Galvanic corrosion of a Muntz metal tubesheet, fitted with AL6X stainless steel tubes, after 1 year of seawater service Fig. 9 Deaerator storage tank weld cracking: crack depth as a percentage of wall thickness per year versus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005862
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... the quenching process is by a cooling curve for a cooling medium under controlled conditions. The example shown in Fig. 1 illustrates the different stages (A′, A, B, and C) of heat transfer. Cooling curves are developed using various types of standard probes, but the same mechanisms and stages of heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003689
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and sign standards, and fencing. The coating has found extensive use in water and wastewater treatment plants, both in atmospheric and immersion service. Applications such as electrical utility transmission towers, microwave transmission stations, pole line hardware, cooling towers and cooling tube bundles...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... tubes will be exposed is often difficult to predict. Many heat exchangers operate with river water, seawater, brackish water, or recirculated cooling-tower water in the tubes. The compositions of these waters used for cooling can change over a period of time, through seasonal variations, or from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... not be considered for cooling-water or instrument-air systems. Although petrochemical plants may include some processes that involve nonflammable or nonhazardous streams, most equipment must be resistant to fires. For example, lack of fire resistance rules out the use of plastic components in refineries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... The electrical component cooling was with distilled water that was cooled using shell and tube heat exchangers (as was the polymer quenchant) with water from a large, 19,000 L (5000 gal), treated water system. This system was in turn kept cool by two evaporative cooling towers. There were two continuous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... exchangers, cooling coils, and electrical transmission towers and poles Bridge structural members, culverts, corrugated steel pipe, and arches Reinforcing steel for cooling towers, architectural precast concrete, and bridge decks exposed to chlorides Pole line hardware and railroad electrification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...—25 and 10 cm 2 ,” Paul N. Gardner Company, Inc. (Gardco), http://www.gardco.com/pages/moisture_air_temp/mo/permcups.cfm 10. “Slip Resistance Measurement,” Dynamic Safety Inc. , http://www.dynamicsafety.com/measurement.htm 11. “Cooling Towers of a Nuclear Power Station,”  http...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... flux cored electrodes are used for automotive body repair. Gas-shielded flux cored wires are used in the fabrication of mining machinery, off-road equipment, earth-moving machinery, pipe and superstructures for offshore drilling platforms, structural steel, water towers, oil storage tanks, military...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... and then quenching (cooling) the melt rapidly enough to create a solid that has no long-range atomic order. There is some debate over what the quantitative value of “long-range” atomic order is, but when the range is long enough, the materials are classified as crystalline. (There is also a group of materials called...