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conventional isothermal hot-tension test

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses two types of hot-tension tests, namely, the Gleeble test and conventional isothermal hot-tension test, as well as their equipment. It summarizes the data for hot ductility, strength, and hot-tension for commercial alloys. The article presents isothermal hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... test) and the on-cooling tension test. The former test gives some estimate of the effects of strain rate and deformation heating on ductility. Done under nominally isothermal conditions, the high-speed tension test (see the article “Hot-Tension Testing” in this Handbook volume) may be used to gage when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in the tension specimen. This introduces a triaxial tensile stress state and leads to fracture. For most metals, the uniform strain that precedes necking rarely exceeds a true strain of 0.5. For hot working temperatures, this uniform strain is frequently less than 0.1. Although tension tests are easily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature for the hot tension behavior of cast and wrought (extruded plus recrystallization heat treated) Ti-49.5Al-2.5Nb-1.1Mn. Source: Ref 79 Observations of wedge-crack formation in isothermal, hot compression testing of wrought Ti-48Al-2.5Nb-0.3Ta also showed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... or block/finish dies), conventional (achieved with two or more sets of dies), high-definition (also requiring two or more sets of dies), and precision forgings (frequently employing hot-die or isothermal forging techniques). Precision titanium alloy forgings are discussed below. Blocker-type titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... , ASM International , 2000 , p 798 – 810 3. Zhao D. and Lampman S. , Hot Tension and Compression Testing , Mechanical Testing and Evaluation , Vol 8 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2000 , p 152 – 163 4. Alder J.F. and Phillips V.A. , J. Inst. Met...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... mechanism will vary. Fig. 9 illustrates the different modes of ductile fracture obtained in a tension test over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. At temperatures below about one-half the melting point of a given material (below the hot-working region), a typical dimpled rupture type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and leads to fracture. For carbon and alloy steels, tension tests are primarily used under special high strain rate, hot tension test conditions to establish the range of hot-working temperatures. The principal advantage of hot tension testing for carbon and alloy steels is that minimum and maximum hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Equipment The torsional mode of mechanical testing, and hot torsion in particular, is not as widely applied as tension, so that there are few commercially available machines. Instead, the apparatus is commonly designed for the specific needs of the individual researcher. The testing machines described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... and h represent the instantaneous sample diameter and height, respectively. Gleeble Systems Gleeble systems (Dynamic Systems, Inc.) ( Ref 8 ) can be used to conduct hot/warm compression or tension tests on various specimen geometries. The Gleeble 3500 system uses direct resistance heating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...-temperature structural alloys. The article discusses hot tension testing and measurements of temperature and strain in the hot tension testing. It also provides an overview of hot compression testing. hot tension testing hot compression testing deformation strain hardening mechanical testing strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... illustrates in a schematic way the different modes of ductile fracture obtained in a tension test over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. At temperatures below approximately one-half the melting point of a given material (below the hot working region), a typical dimpled rupture type of ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the ductile fracture, interlaminar failure, transgranular cleavage and fracture, tension-overload fracture, longitudinal and transverse cracking, fiber splitting, stress rupture, and low-cycle fatigue of these composites. ductile to brittle transition fractograph metal-matrix composites tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... with respect to the workpiece. These axial-radial working rolls are brought into contact with the workpiece and pinch the workpiece in the radial direction. These rollers are then moved in both the axial and radial directions according to a predesigned profile to form the component using hot or isothermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... ductility and to construct failure-mechanism maps. cavitation cavity nucleation uniaxial tensile-stress multiaxial tensile-stress microstructure cavity coalescence cavity shrinkage tension test tensile ductility mesoscale models hot working cavity growth cavitation modeling MANY...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tension-test behavior) metal can behave in a brittle manner when subjected to stress-state condition of triaxial (hydrostatic) tensile stresses. Workability is also influenced by strain rates. Forgeability of steels can increase with increasing strain rate, as shown in low-carbon steel in hot-twist...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Tension <0.1 Conventional load frames 0.1–100 Special servohydraulic frames 100–10 4 Hopkinson pressure bar in tension 10 4 Expanding ring >10 5 Flyer plate Test Effects at High Strain Rates Strain rate, ε ˙ , is the rate of change of strain, ε, with time, t...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... recrystallize at a lower level of deformation. Metals with low stacking-fault energies include brass and austenitic stainless steels, and metals having high stacking-fault energy include aluminum and nickel alloys. In practice, most conventional hot-working processes are too fast for dynamic recrystallization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... requirements B 557 Tension Testing of Wrought and Cast Aluminum-and Magnesium-Alloy Products Lists specimen and grip designs E 4 Force Verification of Testing Machines Calibration of load cells for test frames E 8 Tension Testing of Metallic Materials Lists specimen and grip designs E 21...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... temperatures for magnesium alloys are relatively low ( Table 2 ), conventional low-alloy, hot-worked tool steels are satisfactory materials for forging dies. Dies are finished to a smooth, highly polished surface to reduce surface roughness, scratches, or imperfections on the forging. The high polish also...