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convection damage

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on ten rules for the effective production of reliable castings. These rules include good-quality melt, liquid front damage, liquid front stop, bubble damage, core blows, shrinkage damage, convection damage, segregation, residual stress, and location...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... are currently certified for use in surface-mount technology (SMT) applications: Type A: vapor phase Type B: area conduction (that is, linear conduction) Type C: hot bar Type D: convection and convection/infrared (IR) Type E: laser Of these five methods, three are considered to be mass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... 1 Corrosion of type 316 stainless steel exposed to liquid sodium for 8000 h at 700 °C (1290 °F); hot leg of circulating system. Surface regression is uniform; a 10 to 15 μm layer of ferrite (>95% Fe) has formed. Total damage depth: 27 μm. (a) Light micrograph of wall section showing σ-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... surrounding surfaces to heat, particularly if the weld is made in a vacuum such as outside the spacecraft environment. The result might be damage to exposed components that are heat sensitive if appropriate shielding is not provided. If convective pool stirring is suppressed, the temperature difference...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to as erosion-corrosion. The detrimental effects of erosion have caused problems in a number of industries. In the power-generation industry, erosion damage has occurred to boiler tubes and water walls ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ), steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... convection is the preferred method of heating furnaces for firing porcelain enamel on aluminum. The heat can be provided by electric-package heaters, quartz-tube electric heaters, or metal-sheath heaters, all specially designed for operation at high ambient air temperature. Quartz-tube and metal-sheath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... applications, the arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method recently has been used with great success. Heat-Transfer Model The heat-transfer model solves the energy balance equation. The three major modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the transfer of heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
.... The three major modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the transfer of heat through a solid material or from one material to another by direct contact. Generally speaking, below 540 °C (1000 °F), convection has a much more pronounced effect than radiation. Above 1090...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... problems in a number of industries. In the power-generation industry, erosion damage has occurred to boiler tubes and waterwalls ( Ref 2 – 16 ), steam turbines ( Ref 17 – 19 ), land-based gas turbines ( Ref 20 – 22 ), solids-transport systems ( Ref 16 , 23 – 27 ), cyclones ( Ref 16 , 27 – 29 ), valves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... in the melt drives segregation of the chemical species that can be characterized by x-ray radiography at the macroscopic sample scale for both thermal convection and solutal convection. Thermal convection effects are shown in Fig. 3 . The horizontal bands in Fig. 3(a) show how the indium concentration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... These chloride and sulfate vapors, along with fly ash, condense and deposit on the cooler surfaces, such as the waterwalls that surround the combustion zone, and heat-exchanger surfaces in the convection path in the upper furnace. Vulnerable heat-exchanger parts in the convection path are screen tubes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... heat pulse on the surface of the metal where irradiation occurred. The thermalized heat can then macroscopically flow from this region into the remaining portion of the substrate, as described by classical heat-flow methods (conduction, convection, and radiation heat-transfer mechanisms). During...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Conduction-Mode Welding Momentum transfer or convection dominates conduction-mode welding. High-power density (10 5 to 10 7 W/cm 2 , or 6 × 10 5 to 6 × 10 7 W/in. 2 ) in laser welding produces a temperature gradient of the order of 10 6 K/cm (5 × 10 6 °F/in.) and this in turn leads to surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-body excitation, the temperature of the entire part is raised above (or lowered below) the ambient temperature, and the part returns to equilibrium with its surroundings through the process of thermal convection. In transient excitation, the surface is excited and the part returns to an internal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... common classification methods is by type of process or physics. This means that one must identify the major phenomena occurring in the process, for example, convection, radiation, chemical reaction, diffusion, deformation, and so forth. Once the phenomena has been identified, the process needs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and techniques followed in failure investigation of boilers and related equipment are discussed. The article is framed with an objective to provide systematic information on various damage mechanisms leading to the failure of boiler tubes, headers, and drums, supplemented by representative case studies...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... In this arrangement, radiation from the burners, roof, and sidewalls heats the bath and solid charge. Forced convection through stirring or pumping is also needed to overcome a number of process limitations. Without forced circulation, the concentration of heat at the bath surface readily produces undesirably high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... or properties ( Ref 1 , 2 ). For example, most ferritic weldments are given postweld heat treatment to improve the fracture toughness of the heat-affected zones. Moreover, austenitic and nonferrous alloys are frequently postweld heat treated to improve resistance to environmental damage. Stress-relief heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... comes in contact with the liquid quenchant, there are normally three stages of quenching: Vapor stage (stage A or vapor blanket stage) Boiling stage (stage B or nucleate boiling stage) Convection stage (stage C) An example showing the three stages of quenching is shown in Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... determinations—for example, which of several damaged components failed first—can be made on the basis of careful on-site examination. The relationship of the location of the failure to the locations of other system components—for example, the location of a tube rupture in relation to those of burners or soot...