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contour-based segmentation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... observation and output of the image to a printer. The methods used to enhance the digital image and to extract quantitative information are also described. Different types of image segmentation, namely, adaptive segmentation and contour-based segmentation, are reviewed. The article also presents case studies...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Additionally, the pinpoint of the laser can measure any surface across the ring face, yielding a more accurate measurement, especially on contour rings where the ring face can be complex. In older machines, a pair of hydraulic centering arms ( Fig. 8a ), connected through gear segments, contact the ring OD...
Book Chapter

By Yoram Koren
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... to produce one segment of the workpiece profile. The block contains, in coded form, all the information needed for processing a segment of the workpiece: the segment length, its cutting speed, feed rate, and so on. Dimensional information (length, width, and radii of circles) and the contour form (linear...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... parts may fall under this category, there are others that are suitable for high-speed machining but require extensive pocketing and complex contouring. Both pocketing and contouring can involve frequent accelerations and decelerations in feed rates. Tool-changing time can be reduced by using as few...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... reticulography measurements. (b) X-ray reticulograph from a packaged silicon wafer Fig. 19 Equimisorientation contour obtained when the crystal is illuminated by monochromatic radiation in which only a limited region diffracts Fig. 20 Strain maps of different strain components. (a) ∂ u...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... is not practical. Grippers and wiping shoes or rollers are made to conform to the rolled or extruded shape that is to be stretch formed. Jaws used for gripping sheet in stretch draw forming can be segmented or contoured to apply equal stretch to all parts of the sheet as it is formed. The vertical adapter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... by Rubber-Pad Forming in a Segmented Die Nosing of Tubing Contour Roll Forming Tube Spinning Other Tube-Forming Methods Combination Procedures Example 15: Rear-Axle Housing Formed from a Tubular Bank Compression bending of tube is similar to that for bar bending. One end...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Fig. 1 Setup for contour roll forming of coiled stock (postcut method) Fig. 7 Typical sequences for forming round pipes and tubes. (a to c) With a butt-welded longitudinal seam. (d) With a lock-seam joint. Fig. 8 Typical sequences for roll forming tubing from strip material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Fig. 5 Contour image of a spherical surface with one flat circular region (above center at right). Image was made at a frequency of 8 MHz using scanning acoustical holography. Each full fringe represents a change in elevation of 95 μm (0.00375 in.). Fig. 6 Contour image of a Lincoln U.S...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Fig. 4 Modern roll forging machine Fig. 7 Contours in a typical set of flat-back segmental dies used to forge the workpiece shown Fig. 8 Roll forging operation using multiple passes Fig. 9 Manual operation of roll forging Fig. 10 Forging of an axle shaft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
.... Morioka I. , Process for Manufacturing a Relief by the Aid of Photography , U.S. Patent 2,015,457 , filed 1933 , issued 1935 9. Munz O.J. , Photo-Glyph Recording , U.S. Patent 2,775,758 , filed 1951 , issued 1956 10. Blanther J.E. , Manufacture of Contour Relief Maps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... . These types of components are typically used in stationary applications for aircraft engines. The photographs show the complicated internal and external contours that can be roll formed. The cases were isothermally roll formed using axial-radial roll forming onto a high-strength Ni-base superalloy mandrel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of a fracture surface with triangular elements between contour lines. (a) Projection of contours and triangles. (b) Three-dimensional view of triangle ABC Fig. 7 Contour map and profiles obtained by stereophotogrammetry. Source: Ref 58 Fig. 14 Profiles for 4340 steel. (a) Dimpled fracture...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... out in the desired orientation, and the mold is designed around it, allowing sufficient space for gating and sealing to prevent metal leakage and for coring and inserts. It is common practice to contour the back (outside) of the mold so that the exterior conforms roughly to the cavity. This permits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... line, (c) a flashless extrusion, and (d) a flashless cored forging. Machined contours of the finished fitting are shown in (b), (c), and (d) Fig. 4 Two pierced and extruded seamless (flashless) forgings. Table lists mechanical properties of test coupons taken from the locations shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... contours. All this is simple enough—just a helpful way of plotting data. However, by choosing the axes and scales appropriately, more can be added. The speed of sound in a solid depends on the modulus, E , and the density, ρ; the longitudinal wave speed v , for instance, is v = ( E ρ...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Source: Ref 75 Fig. 23 Correlation between striation spacing and fatigue life of permanent mold cast modified A356 aluminum alloy specimens tested at 0.5% strain amplitude Fig. 25 Fracture surface contour map and fracture profiles obtained by using stereo photogrammetry. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... will not permit the draw. A 60° elliptical radius does not measurably reduce drawing strain and accounts for only a 9% reduction of metal out of control. Its use on draw dies is not economically feasible when the small gains derived are considered in relation to the cost of producing the contour. The drawing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Corner radii 1.5±0.75 mm (0.060 0.030 in.) Fillet radii 3.3±0.75 mm (0.130 0.030 in.) Contour ±0.38 mm (±0.015 in.) Straightness 0.4 mm in 254 mm (0.016 in. in 10 in.) Minimum web thickness (a) 2.3 mm (0.090 in.) Minimum rib thickness 2.3 mm (0.090 in.) Length/width tolerance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Influence of (a) angle of electron beam (EB) incidence and (b) material thickness on the electron beam hardening (EBH) depth Fig. 16 Classification of contours with regard to electron beam hardening. (a) Most suitable. (b) Limited suitability. (c) Unsuitable Fig. 23 (a) Electron beam...