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continuous-length ceramic fibers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article focuses on the production methods, properties, and applications of two main types of commercially available continuous-length ceramic fibers, namely, oxide fibers based on the alumina-silica system and on alpha-alumina, and nonoxide fibers based primarily on beta-phase...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... areas and shapes, twists, plies, and number of fiber ends. They may be purchased in continuous lengths, or chopped to dimension. The diversity of physical properties is one of the benefits of carbon fibers but is also a problem because complete evaluation is expensive. Certain generalizations can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... chemically sizing for some specific applications and by screening to length. Fiber lengths typically vary from particulates to screen opening dimensions for the reported nominal length (0.79 to 6.4 mm, or 1 32 to 1 4 in.). As such, milled fibers have a relatively low aspect ratio...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fracture ( Ref 86 ): σ ∼ [ E ( ϕ ) ( 1 − ϕ / ϕ c ) ] 1 / 2 where E (ϕ) is the composite modulus as a function of fiber volume fraction, ϕ, and ϕ c is a critical fiber fraction. This assumes that natural fibers have defects distributed along their length whose...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... length, and R is the fiber diameter. The results are presented in terms of the propagation stress, σ p , normalized by the peak stress, σ 0 , in the traction law and plotted against a nondimensional crack length, α, defined by ( Ref 29 , 32 ): (Eq 5) α ≡ a 0 σ 0 u 0 E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... are long fiber lengths apparent, but also many holes are visible from which fibers have been pulled out. It is important to note that the nonlinear stress- strain behavior occurs because of debonding of the fiber/matrix interface and subsequent fiber pullout due to fracture of the interphase and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...;10) ( Ref 39 ). Diameters typically range from 0.1 to 5 μm, with lengths greater than 5 μm. This differentiates them from other fibrous materials that are polycrystalline, amorphous, or continuous. Both metals and ceramics can be grown into whiskers, which often show mechanical properties approaching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... increases its fracture toughness. Both fibers and whiskers can enhance the pullout toughness of a DR- CMC, although the pullout lengths of whiskers are relatively small, and thus their toughening effects are correspondingly less. When pullout is the dominant toughening mechanism, a balance between composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... shrinkage after sintering is that fibers and whiskers—that is, reinforcements with high aspect ratio (length/diameter)—can form a network that may inhibit the sintering process. Depending on the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the reinforcement and matrix, a hydrostatic tensile stress can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... J c range from 3.5 to 241.8 N/m, depending on fiber length and fiber volume fraction. The interface condition also strongly affects the value of J c ( Ref 64 ). Table 3 shows a wide range of J c values for continuous woven Nicalon fiber fabric-reinforced SiC matrix composites produced by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... only passing comments on metal-ceramic and metal/ceramic-semiconductor interfaces. This restriction is necessary to limit the length of this article. Wherever appropriate, applications of thin films on substrates will also be used. Surface energy, Γ surf , is defined as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Typical single-bead multilayer ceramic structure. (a) Al 2 O 3 (Δ z = 0.2 mm, or 0.008 in.). (b) Al 2 O 3 /ZrO 2 (Δ z = 0.5 mm, or 0.02 in.) As mentioned earlier, the parameters of laser power and scanning speed determine the amount of energy input per unit length and time, while the scanning...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article explains how ceramic powders are made. It begins by briefly describing the raw materials used in structural clay products, whitewares, refractories, and advanced ceramics. It then examines various additives that promote uniformity at different stages of the process. After...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 3100 5170 620 22 6.0 80 120 72WC-8TiC-11.5TaC-8.5Co Medium 90.7–91.5 12.6 1720 5170 558 13 6.8 50 123 (a) Based on a value of 100 for the most abrasion-resistant material. (b) Room temperature to 1000 °C (1832 °F). (c) Slope of load, P , vs. total crack length...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in the form of continuous-length multifilament tows or rovings, which are typically coated with a thin polymer-based sizing and then supplied to customers on spools. These sized tows are flexible and easily handled so that they can be woven or braided into fabrics, tapes, sleeves, and other complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., fiber, flake, and sheet reinforcements. Matrices may be ceramic, metallic, polymeric, and cementitious. One of the keys to obtaining effective composite properties is ensuring thorough infiltration of the fiber tow by the matrix. This infiltration process is limited by the interfacial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., thermomechanical processing, and composition. Both indentation crack length (fracture) and indentation strength methods can be successfully used to measure K Ic only at ambient temperature in ceramic materials where neither significant slow crack growth nor R -curve behavior is observed. Simple sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and silicon carbide used for various high-temperature mechanical structures and wear parts. Other materials are almost purely ionic in bonding, including halides such as magnesium fluoride used for infrared transmitting windows and optical glass fibers. Most ceramics show some mix of covalent and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... composite fracture surface will appear very fibrous with broken fibers projecting out from the surface to lengths of 20 diameters or more. The strength goes through a maximum as the coupling between fibers and matrix is increased, and the fracture behavior becomes more brittle ( Fig. 6 ). The length of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... formed into beads from a melt and is very coarse compared with the other batch materials. However, it is the lowest melting point material used. It is also very hygroscopic, cakes readily as a result, and cannot be stored for any appreciable length of time without special precautions to keep it dry...