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continuous transverse grain boundaries

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... for stress concentration, leading to SCC failure. Another microstructural feature is the continuity of grain-boundary precipitates. A continuous distribution of precipitates in the grain boundaries is not beneficial ( Fig. 3 ). Widely spaced, unconnected precipitates at the grain boundaries contribute...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... beads in a multiple-pass weld ( Fig. 10 ). As solidification progresses, grains bend to follow the maximum thermal gradient ( Fig. 11 ). This phenomenon can be employed to map solidification isotherms through the use of longitudinal, transverse, and normal sections. Fig. 9 25 mm (1.0 in.) type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... that originally passed continuously across a grain boundary ( Fig. 42 ). Dislocation-precipitate reactions are of two types. If particles are large (>l μm, or 40 μin.) and strong, the particle-matrix interface, when stressed, can be a source of dislocations. If particles are small (<0.1 μm, or 4 μin...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... or precipitation-hardened metals and alloys generally must be characterized using electron microscopy. High-temperature phase transformations frequently nucleate at grain boundaries. The grain-boundary structures can be discrete or continuous. Continuous grain-boundary constituents ( Fig. 18 ) provide easy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... on a shaft Fig. 1 Grain-boundary oxidation and melting due to overheating during forging. Unetched Fig. 2 Intergranular “rock candy” axle shaft fracture due to overheating during forging Fig. 10 (a) Transverse internal crack in induction-hardened shaft. (b) Induction-hardened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... in β volume fraction, continuity increase K Ic Grain boundary α phase Increases in thickness and continuity increase K Ic Shape of α phase Increase in aspect ratio of α phase increases K Ic Orientation Crack oriented for easy cleavage along basal planes gives low K Ic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... as seed crystals for epitaxial grain growth during weld metal solidification. The continuous growth of the epitaxial grains results in large columnar grains whose boundaries provide easy paths for crack propagation. An elongated weld pool will yield straight and broad columnar grains, which promote...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... (b) Transverse (shear) waves. (c) Surface waves. (d) For longitudinal waves Z 1 = ρ V 1 . (e) At standard temperature and pressure. (f) At 4 °C (39 °F). (g) At 0 °C (32 °F) Critical angles for immersion and contact testing, and incident angle for 45° shear wave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... the combined carbon increases, strength and hardness increase correspondingly until a combined carbon content of 0.8% is reached, at which point the structure consists entirely of pearlite. At 1.0% combined carbon, free cementite forms at the grain boundaries, which reduces the transverse rupture strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stainless steel etched with electrolytic potassium hydroxide During exposure to high temperatures, brittle oxides can form either as a continuous layer on the surface or preferentially along the grain boundaries, where it is called intergranular oxidation ( Fig. 27 ). Fig. 27 (a) Continuous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... particles are AlFeSi intermetallics at the grain boundary. Note the precipitate-free zone near the AlFeSi intermetallics. Source: Ref 10 as published in Ref 11 Fig. 25 Transmission electron micrograph showing a region of discontinuous (left) and continuous (right) precipitation in a specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and MAR-M 200. The problems encountered ranged from little longitudinal stress-rupture improvement with IN 100 to the lack of transverse ductility and DS grain-boundary cracking with MAR-M 200. Pioneering work by Martin Metals resulted in the addition of hafnium to conventionally cast equiaxed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of hydride platelets (gold) and intermetallic particles in the zirconium grain boundaries. Original magnification: 1000×. Fig. 23 Zr702 sheet, transverse. Attack polished, anodized at 28 V, and viewed with polarized light illumination. This micrograph shows the presence of massive hydrides caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... in hot chloride solutions ( Ref 154 ) Fig. 25 Fracture plane identification. L, direction of grain flow; T, transverse grain direction; S, short transverse grain direction; C, chord of cylindrical cross section; R, radius of cylindrical cross section; first letter, normal to the fracture plane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... extrusion ( Ref 19 , Ref 20 , Ref 21 ). This mechanism of grain refinement is sometimes called continuous dynamic recrystallization because of the gradual nature of the formation of high-angle boundaries with increasing strain. Like primary recrystallization, secondary recrystallization consists...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., and many of the voids disappear as the grain-boundary diffusion of atoms continues. Simultaneously, the interfacial grain boundary migrates to an equilibrium configuration away from the original plane of the joint, leaving many of the remaining voids within the grains. In the third stage, the remaining...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is generally lower. However, backscattering “noise” from grain boundaries is usually more important than attenuation, although the net result is the same because the signal-to-noise ratio also usually decreases with frequency. This is shown in Fig. 3 . This means that the two requirements of high penetration...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or incipient cracking. Breaking of a film ahead of an advancing crack permits crack propagation to continue in the metal. Rapid local breaking of the film without particles of film filling the exposed crack is required for rapid crack propagation. Intergranular cracking occurs when grain-boundary regions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., backscattering “noise” from grain boundaries is usually more important than attenuation, although the net result is the same because the signal-to-noise ratio also usually decreases with frequency. This is shown in Fig. 3 . This means that the two requirements of high penetration and high resolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., and α is the internal angle made by the boundary trace on a longitudinal section cut perpendicular to the surface. Fig. 9 Schematic representation of grain-boundary sliding In superplasticity experiments, the longitudinal offset, u , and/or the transverse offsets, w , are considered...