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continuous precipitation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the processes involved in continuous hotdip coating of steel sheets, namely, hot and cold line processing, surface preparation, and post treatment. It outlines the properties and microstructures of metals and their alloys used in this process. The coatings...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... produce a repetitive series of oval-to-round reductions. In the continuous casting of ETP copper with oxygen content in the melt of approximately 400 ppm, the dissolved oxygen reacts with the impurities present during solidification, precipitating these out of the solid solution and resulting in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article outlines the advantages of the steel continuous casting, along with its developments and challenges for improvement. It describes the process of the steel continuous casting. The article provides a description of the design and layout of a steelmaking facility for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of precipitation-hardening stainless steels and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the cup-and-cone tension-overload...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., zirconium, chromium, vanadium, scandium, nickel, tin, and bismuth. The article discusses the secondary phases in aluminum alloys, namely, nonmetallic inclusions, porosity, primary particles, constituent particles, dispersoids, precipitates, grain and dislocation structure, and crystallographic texture. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article discusses the various methods for evaluating the quench sensitivity of aluminum alloys, namely, time-temperature-property diagrams, the quench factor analysis, the Jominy end-quench method, and continuous-cooling precipitation diagrams. It briefly describes the procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... increases continuously with time until some maximum is reached, normally in the fully precipitated condition. The optimum condition generally preferred results from a precipitation treatment of temperature and duration just beyond those that correspond to the hardness aging peak. Cold working prior to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... to an increase of strength. The clusters are metastable and continue to evolve into other precipitates, the composition, size, shape, and crystal structure of which may differ. The transition between different types of precipitates may be a gradual transformation via exchange of atoms on specific...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article discusses the types, properties, and uses of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites, including glass, carbon, aramid, boron, continuous silicon carbide, and aluminum oxide fiber composites. While polyester and vinyl ester resins are the most used matrix materials for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article presents an outline of the physical metallurgical principles that are associated with heat treating of steels. It describes the iron-carbon phase diagram and various types of transformation diagrams, including isothermal transformation diagrams, continuous heating...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract In high-iron-tonnage operations, the cupola remains the most efficient source of continuous high volumes of iron needed to satisfy high production foundries or the multiple casting machines of centrifugal pipe producers. This article explores successful improvement technologies in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... crack is observed to propagate along the grain boundaries through the fracture of brittle β-phase precipitates. Heat treatment to redistribute these precipitates and break the continuous network is required to improve the properties of such composite materials. Fig. 10 Magnesium alloy AZ91D-SiC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... similar to that for the binary magnesium-aluminum alloys, precipitation can occur continuously and discontinuously. The amount of discontinuous precipitate depends on the cooling rate from the solution temperature and affects the mechanical properties, as illustrated in Fig. 9 . Higher cooling rates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... phase where heterophase fluctuations occur. Some of these fluctuations reach a large enough size that they can continue to grow and lead to the formation of precipitates. The nucleating system is thus envisioned mainly from a thermodynamic viewpoint. The key controlling parameters are the nucleation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... different types of stainless steels such as austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation-hardening, and on the heat treatment of superalloys and refractory metals. It discusses the recommended procedures for solution annealing, austenite conditioning, transformation cooling, and age...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., manufacturing operations were impeded from efficient operation by the need to continually adjust heat treatment conditions for each new alloy/component that came through the production line. Precipitation heat treatments were identified as a principal cause of economic problems in manufacturing. Consequently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... precipitation-hardened alloys. It examines the consequences of aging treatments on the residual stress, namely, annealing, precipitation heat treatment, and cryogenic treatment. The article provides information on uphill quenching, which attempts to reverse thermal gradients encountered during quenching. It...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... continuous casting process. It provides information on castability and quality of the casted alloys. The article details postcasting treatment, including heat treatment, hot isostatic pressing, and coatings. It summarizes the applications of cast cobalt alloys. cast cobalt alloys castability coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workability, because such large-grained structures can be crack prone. In addition, grain-boundary precipitates may form as the ingot is cooled from homogenization to the final forging temperature. A large grain structure with relatively few grain boundaries may result in a continuous precipitate in the grain...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of various steel manufacturing processes, such as ingot casting, continuous casting, and hot rolling. It provides an outline of specialized processing routes of producing ultralow plain carbon steels, interstitial-free steels, high strength low-alloy steels, ultrahigh strength steels, stainless...