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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... construction issues such as funding, sequencing, and working clearances. It concludes with information on the post-construction monitoring and maintenance for stray-current corrosion control. stray-current corrosion control electric rail transit systems stray-current corrosion corrosion control design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are constructed respond to their environments in accordance with the properties of their materials and hopefully in ways that designers anticipated. For the most part, there are four broad categories of expected material response that must be anticipated: fracture, deformation, corrosion, and wear. Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., that is, boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs), is necessary. Although corrosion was considered in all plant designs, corrosion was not considered as a serious problem. The major concern was general corrosion, and it was well known at the time of LWR design and construction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Propeller blades One example of these government-sponsored programs, the composite spoiler for the Boeing 737, was funded by the NASA Langley Research Center. Its design featured carbon-fiber-reinforced skins and end-closure ribs made of fiberglass. The other components of the spoiler, including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., and this program anticipates funding work to identify the mechanism and ways to prevent its formation. See the article “Rouging of Stainless Steels in High-Purity Waters” in this Volume for details on the water chemistry, materials of construction, and classification of rouge. References References 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003481
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the more widespread use of composites in marine structures are presented. fiber-reinforced polymer marine applications maritime crafts offshore drilling platforms THE FIRST MARINE APPLICATION of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials was in the construction of boats shortly after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in federal funding for the study. This article first describes the methodology used in this study and then reports the results and conclusions of the study. Methodology In the 1998 study, two methods were used to estimate the cost of corrosion to the United States: Method 1: The cost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... Crosby's book Quality Is Free played a large role in launching the quality movement in the United States and Europe ( Ref 1 ). In the last few decades, quality management has moved beyond manufacturing into the service, construction, healthcare, education, and government sectors. Defining Quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006854
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... biologically relevant materials, molecules, cells, tissues, and biodegradable biomaterials with a prescribed organization to accomplish one or more biological functions. Currently, 3D bioprinting constructs can be classified into two categories: acellular and cellular. This article introduces and discusses...
Book Chapter

By Don O. Evans
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... machine was delivered to an aerospace company. The first company to implement fiber placement on a production aircraft was Boeing Helicopters. A U.S. government- funded program was conducted by Boeing and Hercules to develop the design and process for fiber placing the aft fuselage for the Bell/Boeing V...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... factor (single payment) ( F / P , i %, n ) 2 Present worth factor (single payment) ( P / F , i %, n ) 3 Sinking fund factor ( A / F , i %, n ) 4 Capital recovery factor ( A / P , i %, n ) 5 Compound amount factor (uniform series) ( F / A , i %, n ) 6 Present worth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... THIS ARTICLE PROVIDES A BASIC OVERVIEW of bridge corrosion, where it occurs on steel and concrete bridge structures, and how to prevent corrosion by using coatings. While there are bridges constructed of wood, aluminum, and other materials, the vast majority of bridges are constructed of steel or concrete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... installations are about 13 to 15% of the Maintenance of Real Property and Minor Construction costs. About half of these corrosion-related costs could be attributed to structural, electrical, and mechanical components in buildings and the other half to utilities. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this percentage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... constructed from August 1942 through August 1944. The federal government, through a quasi-public company, War Emergency Pipelines, Inc., funded the project. At the time, the “Big Inch” was the longest and most expensive pipeline in the world. The impetus for the project was the German submarine menace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... electrical conversion efficiency; GaAs solar cells have been demonstrated to convert 22% of the available sunlight to electricity, compared with about 16% for silicon solar cells. Because of their higher energy efficiency, GaAs solar cells can be smaller than those constructed of silicon and still provide...
Book Chapter

By Frank K. Ko
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Dimension of braid Two-dimensional Three-dimensional Three-dimensional Shaping Formed shape Formed shape Net shape Direction of braiding Horizontal Vertical Inverted vertical Construction of braid 1/1 2/2 3/3 Control mechanism for carrier motion Positive Positive Jacquard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006892
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... many advantages, which are mainly high printing speed (up to 10,000 drops/s) and low cost. Inkjet printers provide a cost-effective way for many companies and research labs to fabricate drug-screening systems and tissue constructs. However, liquid materials suitable for inkjet printing are restricted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article discusses the methods of pulp production, pulp processing, pulp bleaching, and paper manufacturing. It describes various types of digesters, their construction materials, the corrosion problems encountered, and methods to protect these digesters from corrosion. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... into the final part ( Ref 4 , 5 ). Accounting information is employed to develop one of two constructs: a machine rental cost or a variable burden rate. In the former, the costs of the capital, energy, and labor required to operate production equipment is summed and then divided by the time they are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... many hours it took to do it. In times of military conflict, the maintenance and repair practices adopted more often than necessary were to make sure that fleet readiness requirements were complied with, and the DoD appropriated the funds necessary for such practices ( Ref 2 ). In the worst-case...