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constitutional undercooling

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... model, free growth model, and constitutional undercooling model. The article concludes with a section on thermal analysis techniques for assessing grain-refining characteristics during master alloy processing. casting heterogeneous nucleation homogeneous nucleation nucleation kinetics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Microstructure of a Cu-70Pb alloy solidified at V = 778 μm/s. Solidification direction is right-to-left. Source: Ref 7 as published in Ref 5 The range of existence of the fibrous composite is limited by the constitutional undercooling on one side and by the critical velocity of pushing-to-engulfment...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... T s Solidus temperature K V Interface velocity m/s V a Velocity of absolute stability m/s V c Velocity of constitutional undercooling m/s V o Collision rate of atoms m/s y Coordinate parallel to interface m z Coordinate perpendicular to interface m...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... they are displaced to greater undercoolings ( Fig. 23 ). Another theory relates graphite shape in cast iron with undercooling (kinetic plus constitutional) during solidification ( Ref 6 ). As shown in Fig. 24 , each graphite form has its own temperature for growth, which is achieved by a specific...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... constitutional undercooling and interface energy. Since the thermal and solute gradients in the liquid are negative, constitutional supercooling will always be present to cause the interface to become unstable. The interface energy will initially stabilize the spherical nucleus, but the effect of interface...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... −1 ·K −1 ) ( Fig. 5 ). Constitutive relationships among growth rate, ν, eutectic spacing, λ, and degree of undercooling, Δ T , have been developed. The general relationships among them are: (Eq 2) ( ν λ 2 ) =  Constant and (Eq 3) ( Δ T ν ) =  Constant...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... inexpensive wire manufacture and amorphous tapes and ribbons for brazing and magnetic applications. The latter two constitute the most successful commercial application of this technology. Some rapidly solidified materials have been subjected to subsequent consolidation into bulk samples by a myriad of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... dissolved element is treated as a constitutional undercooling agent and the effects are summed according to: (Eq 2) GRF = ∑ ( k i − 1 ) m i C o where k i and m i are the distribution coefficient between liquid and solid and the slope of the liquidus line for the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of the cast product and its environment over huge temperature intervals. Characterizing the heat-transfer coefficients at the boundaries and interfaces is one of many difficulties. The mechanical problem is highly nonlinear, involving liquid-solid interaction and complex constitutive equations...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is possible under very closely controlled conditions to cool the metal far below its melting point (“undercooling”), in practice the undercooling experienced is very small. This is because commercial melts always contain some sort of nucleating agent. Most often this agent will be the wall of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... undercooling as determined by the cooling rate during solidification. Mold design will affect cooling rate and the dimensions of the resulting dendritic structure, with a preferred finer dendritic structure resulting from the use of a more rapid cooling rate. The interdendritic regions of CoCrMo alloys are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... (liquid 2). All gases are completely miscible in one another, including metal vapors. Figure 1(d) shows the vapor phase, in which the 50% Pb-50% Zn alloy can exist under suitable conditions of temperature and pressure. Before considering in some detail the phases that constitute metal...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... compositions (high carbon contents) in the ductile irons are avoided because of a greater tendency toward the formation of graphite flotation and degenerate graphite forms in sections larger than 25 mm (1 in.). The higher alloy contents affect the constitution of the irons, creating conditions that favor the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... with small amounts of elements, including beryllium, silicon, nickel, tin, zinc, and chromium, and are constituted to have improved strength properties compared to high-purity copper while maintaining a minimum of 85% electrical conductivity. They are widely used for cast electrical conducting members...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... arm coarsening, and dendrite tip undercooling directly with a commercial multicomponent phase diagram (CALPHAD) computation , Pandat. Results from phase-transformation kinetic models, such as the commercial tool Dictra, were used for predicting phase dissolution. MicroMod is capable of predicting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... transformation, and microstructure and texture evolution during heat treatment, as well as the construction of constitutive equations of critical microstructure features (i.e., fast-acting models) as a function of processing parameters such as time, temperature, and stress. Applications discussed include...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... graphite is generally considered the preferred graphite type for gray iron. When nucleation of the eutectic is less effective, so that few nuclei are activated, the near-eutectic composition liquid undercools at a greater rate until the austenite-graphite eutectic is nucleated, forming a finer graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and require considerable undercooling to initiate crystallization. However, when crystallization occurs, the phase transformation fills the channels and hinders further ingress of the CMAS. Increased cooling to reduce the overall temperature of the TBC to initiate crystallization is not a viable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... temperature- and microstructure-dependent electromagnetic properties and heat generation due to eddy currents (Joule effect). The material properties during heat treatment processes usually have a pronounced variation with temperature, microstructural constitution, stress, and concentration of alloying...