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constitutional undercooling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... The article describes various undercooling methods, including kinetic undercooling, thermal undercooling, constitutional undercooling, and pressure undercooling. For solidification to occur, nuclei must form in the liquid. The article discusses the various types of nucleation: homogeneous nucleation...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... during casting. The article describes nucleation phenomenon such as homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation. It examines various grain refinement models, such as the carbide-boride model, the free growth model, and the constitutional undercooling model. The article concludes with information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Fig. 62 Restriction on composite growth imposed by the critical velocity for the pushing engulfment transition and by constitutional undercooling. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 63 Microstructure of upward directional solidification of a Cu-37.7Pb alloy in longitudinal section. V = 4.4 μm/s...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Melting temperature K T l Liquidus temperature K T o Temperature of equal free energy (k(V) = 1) K T s Solidus temperature K V Interface velocity m/s V a Velocity of absolute stability m/s V c Velocity of constitutional undercooling m/s V o Collision...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Monotectic solidification for low-dome alloys. (a) Low growth velocity. (b) High growth velocity. Source: Ref 4 as published in Ref 5 Fig. 6 Restriction on composite growth imposed by the critical velocity for the pushing engulfment transition and by constitutional undercooling. Source: Ref 4...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., such as those in Fig. 22 and (c) , are due to incorrect kinetic undercooling and an imbalance of impurities influencing constitutional undercooling. An insufficient amount of impurities influencing kinetic undercooling (for example, magnesium) will favor the formation of intermediate graphite shapes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... velocity is controlled by constitutional undercooling and interface energy. Since the thermal and solute gradients in the liquid are negative, constitutional supercooling will always be present to cause the interface to become unstable. The interface energy will initially stabilize the spherical nucleus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...   ln ( 1 − φ ) 3 ⋅ 1 n + 1 ] n where a and n are material constants that are determined by fitting calculations of the constitutional tip undercooling from the KGT model to an equation of the form Δ T = ( aR ) 1/ n . For CMSX-4, these values are a = 1.25 × 10 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... favoring high constitutional undercooling, the effect of inoculation disappears in time (fading effect of inoculation). The rate of change is highest in the first minutes after inoculation. It also was found that the fading of the modification of the primary structure is much faster than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...% of its crankshaft production to ductile iron. United States 1956 Formulation of the constitutional undercooling criterion by Chalmers opens the road for applications of solidification science to metal casting. Sweden 1965 First scanning electron microscope marketed by the Cambridge Scientific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the curvature at the cell tip (see Eq 4 ), which is not considered in the constitutional supercooling model. Tip undercooling decreases the temperature at which the solidification occurs and, as Fig. 3 shows, increases the composition of the solid that is forming. No initial transient of the sort shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Solidification , Phys. Rev. Lett. , Vol 93 , 2004 , p 126105 37. Mathiesen R.H. and Arnberg L. , X-ray Radiography Observations of Columnar Dendritic Growth and Constitutional Undercooling in an Al-30wt%Cu Alloy , Acta Mater. , Vol 53 , 2005 , p 947 – 956 38. Yasuda H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...) Eutectic LG iron (4.27 CE), 20 mm diam bar. (c) Hypereutectic LG iron (4.64 CE), 30 mm (1.2 in.) diam bar. (d) Spheroidal graphite iron, 30 mm diam bar. Courtesy of R. Boeri and G. Rivera Fig. 3 Relationship between superheating and maximum undercooling in lamellar graphite cast iron. Source...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for the materials are inexpensive wire manufacture and amorphous tapes and ribbons for brazing and magnetic applications. The latter two constitute the most successful commercial application of this technology. Some rapidly solidified materials have been subjected to subsequent consolidation into bulk samples...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... −1 (23 J·mol −1 ·K −1 ) ( Fig. 5 ). Constitutive relationships among growth rate, ν, eutectic spacing, λ, and degree of undercooling, Δ T , have been developed. The general relationships among them are: (Eq 2) ( ν λ 2 ) =  Constant and (Eq 3) ( Δ T ν...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... M. , Faivre G. , and Karma A. , Overstability of Lamellar Eutectic Growth Below the Minimum-Undercooling Spacing , Metall. Mater. Trans. A , Vol 35 , 2004 , p 1815 – 1828 7. Snigirev A. , Sinigreva I. , Kohn V. , Kutznesov S. , and Schelekov T.I...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... The three terms on the right in Eq 5 represent the thermal, solutal (constitutional), and curvature undercooling, respectively. Also, m L is the liquidus slope, C o is the initial alloy composition, k o is the partition coefficient, Γ is the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient, and R t is the dendrite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... ratio (σ min /σ max ). The high strength of aluminum-lithium weld metal is due to a combination of fine grain size and precipitate formation. This unexplained tendency for fine grains, as small as 10 μm in diameter (equiaxed), has been noted elsewhere ( Ref 40 ). Constitutional undercooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... thickens with increasing undercooling below T p . The matrix is the Sn-η eutectic. Mechanically polished, etched in HNO 3 . 100×. Source: Ref 34 Fig. 32 Start of the peritectic transformation in the same directionally solidified Cu-20Sn alloy shown in Fig. 30 , but at higher magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.../j.actamat.2006.06.049 62. Kapturkiewicz W. , Burbelko A. , and Górny M. , Undercooling, Cooling Curves and Nodule Count for Near-Eutectic Thin-Walled Ductile Iron Castings , ISIJ Int. , Vol 54 ( No. 2 ), 2014 , p 288 – 293 10.2355/isijinternational.54.288 63. Burbelko...