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constant-amplitude stress cycling

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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 2 Crack growth versus constant-amplitude stress cycles More
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 1 Schematic of constant-amplitude ( S a ) stress cycling about a mean load S m . (a) The alternating load plotted vs. time. (b) Fracture for one specimen plotted vs. the number of cycles, N. (c) Fractures for ten specimens at one constant level of alternating load S a plotted vs More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract This article describes a scientific approach to the planning and evaluation of fatigue tests based on the determination of probabilities for detected fracture positions within the observed range of fatigue scatter. It schematically illustrates a constant-amplitude stress cycling about...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... size, defect size, stress modes, and waveform types. The article discusses various fracture mechanics in cast steels: cyclic stress-strain behavior and low- and high-cycle fatigue life behavior; plane-stress fracture toughness; plane-strain fracture toughness; constant-amplitude fatigue crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... is expected to be less than that of the high-cycle-fatigue data. Nomenclature This article uses, unless stated otherwise, engineering stress σ and strain ε and cycles to failure N , where failure denotes separation of the test specimens. Results from constant amplitude, periodic loadings are the basis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...) Center-cracked tension specimen Fig. 2 Crack growth versus constant-amplitude stress cycles Because the fracture mechanics characterization is expressed in terms of da / dN versus Δ K , the a versus N data must be reduced to this format. The most commonly used numerical techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.9781627081931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0005723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... A(T) arc tension specimen field) A(T) arc-shaped specimen (in tension) a0 mean stress in strain life method I moment of inertia ATC accelerated thermal cycling =(0"3 stress amplitude, O"a O"max- O"min)/2 IF isothermal fatigue a/W crack length to depth ratio O"ce critical stress in emergency condition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Stress-Based Loading The traditional total life philosophy for fatigue life prediction is based on an endurance limit established from stress-log cycle plots, also known as S - N curves. In these tests, uncracked specimens are subjected to a constant amplitude load cycle until failure occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...-Miner rule along with a cycle counting procedure. Cycle counting permits an irregular time history to be broken down into individual events that may be evaluated from a constant amplitude S - N curve. The time history and the S - N curve can employ a common variable, which may be actual stress σ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... 2 Different phases of fatigue life and relevant factors In a fatigue curve ( S - N curve, Wöhler curve), the fatigue life ( N ) until failure is plotted as a function of the stress amplitude ( S a ). Such curves apply to so-called constant-amplitude (CA) loading, that is, cyclic loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... response of the material is therefore plotted in the form of the course of the plastic-strain amplitude Δε pl /2 versus the number of cycles N. In a plastic-strain-controlled test (where Δε pl /2 is constant), the stress amplitude exhibits characteristic changes ( Fig. 5b ). If tests with considerably...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... through the model of the behavior. For materials that do not have a fatigue limit, or for finite-life estimates of materials that do, the fatigue strength at a given number of cycles can be substituted for the intercept on the stress-amplitude axis. Examples of the Haigh and constant-life diagrams...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... explained, including mean stress effects, sequences of stress/strain amplitude or stress state, nonproportional loading and cycle counting, and HCF fatigue limits. In addition, the article covers the formation and propagation of cracks on the order of several grain sizes in diameter in initially isotropic...
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 3 Maximum compressive stress, Δσ/2, versus cycles at a constant strain amplitude of Δε/2 = 0.75% for overaged Ni-14Al (at.%). Source: Ref 12 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... to life by another power-law relationship: (Eq 32) σ a = σ f ′ ( 2 N f ) b Δσ/2 = σ a in zero-mean constant amplitude test, σ a = true stress amplitude. 2 N f = reversals to failure (1 cycle = 2 reversals). σ′ f = fatigue-strength coefficient. b = fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... strength at a given number of cycles can be substituted for the intercept on the stress-amplitude axis. Examples of the Haigh and constant-life diagrams are provided in Fig. 2 and 3 . Figure 3 is of interest also because of its construction in terms of a percentage of ultimate tensile strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and minimum stresses in 1 cycle, S r = S max − S min . The stress amplitude, S a , is one-half the range of stress, S a = S r /2 = ( S max − S min )/2. During a fatigue test, the stress cycle is usually maintained constant so that the applied stress conditions can be written S m ± S...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... to life by a power-law relationship such that: (Eq 1) σ a = σ f ′ 2 N f b where the true stress amplitude (σ a ) is equal to Δσ/2 in a zero-mean constant amplitude test, and 2 N f is equal to reversals to failure (1 cycle = 2 reversals). The use of the number...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... rotating shaft having a slight misalignment will see a simple, fully reversed, constant-amplitude load cycle each revolution of the shaft. The wing on an aircraft will see a simple load cycle each flight due to a change in loading, wherein the fuselage supports the wing when the aircraft is on the ground...